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Current Issue January, 2021
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A Study of Promotion of Sports through Sponsorships and Institutional Growth at Club Level

The main objective of the present research was to determine the relationship of sponsorships and institutional growth with sports of players at club level. The existing research was quantitative in nature. The present study had a correlation research design. Population of the study was overall players belonging to sports’ clubs in Bahawalpur and Faisalabad cities. Systematic random sampling employed to choose the samples. The sample size was comprised of 200 club players of various sports disciplines. Data was collected through self-administered survey questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis as statistical approaches were used to produce the results. The findings revealed that there was found positive and significant relationship between sponsorships and various sports of players. The results indicated that significant and positive association was existed between institutional growth and players’ sports. The findings of the study revealed that sponsorships and institutional growth had positive and significant influence on various sports of players. It was concluded that sponsorships had a central character to upgrade not only the club sports but also uplift the standards of institutional growth at national and international sports.
Keywords: Sponsorship, Institutional Growth, Sports, Promotion, Club Sports, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Mainstream English Press and Poverty Alleviation: Critical Analysis of Letters to the Editor Section of Daily Dawn (Aug 2018-Dec 2019)

study aims to examine the role of English press in providing a platform to readers to reflect their opinions regarding poverty alleviation. The study analyses the importance of English press in incorporating perspectives and voices of the readers. Universe of the study is Mainstream English Press of Pakistan, but the newspaper Daily Dawn (highest circulation across the country) provides an equal platform to readers to share their opinions and views regarding poverty and its alleviation all over the country. The narrative theory supports the study as the macro level narrative is building in society due to different readers’ opinion according to their particular ways of thinking and circumstances. The study applies quantitative and qualitative content analysis to critically evaluate the content along with its frequency and focuses on interpreting and describing the actual sense or meaning behind the content. The study also applies purposive sampling to select the samples according to the purpose of selecting only those letters to editor where the poverty and poverty related issues and alleviation can be found. The research study finds out that the English press is practicing responsible journalism by providing platform to readers and reflecting opinions regarding poverty and its alleviation. It also highlights that mainstream English newspaper Dawn, is creating awareness regarding this social issue of poverty and also identifies the unequal distribution of opportunities due to poverty. It also ensures the quality journalism practicing by mainstream English newspapers, even in the era of digital media.
Keywords: Poverty Alleviation, Mainstream Press, Letters to Editor.

Inflation, Money Supply and Budget Deficit Nexus: A Case Study of Pakistan

Inflation, money supply and budget deficit are very important macroeconomic variables. In this study, it is tried to find out relationship among these variables. For this purpose the annual data ranging from 1980 to 2015 has been taken. Augmented Dicky Fuller (ADF) unit root test suggest that data is non-stationary at level. So interdependence of every variable on other two variables is checked through OLS and Granger Causality test. The bi-directional causality is found between inflation and money supply while unidirectional causality is run from budget deficit to inflation. Similarly the causality is run unidirectional from budget deficit to money supply. It is suggested that the government is needed to control the expenditure or increase revenues to minimize the volume of budget deficit as it is the cause of inflation.
Keywords: ADF, Granger Causality, Macroeconomy, OLS, Pakistan.

Snow White and the Huntsman (2012): A Postmodern Fairytale through the Lens of Intertextuality

Fairy tales have some innate connection with people. They are present in a person’s life since childhood. They have evolved with every time period. Recent retellings of fairy tales are presented according to the need of time. They have not only encapsulated the film media, but have also highlighted the recent postmodern trend. A notion, propagating pluralist perspectives and emphasizing on relativity. Postmodernists have used the tool of intertextuality to reword the stories of past and to quench the postmodern thirst. The present study focuses on a contemporary American fairy tale movie to analyse the postmodern aspects present in it. The researcher has selected Snow White and the Huntsman (2012), a remake of The Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs which was a retelling of a story by brothers Grimm. Smith (2007) has construed a very unique yet comprehensive framework for analysing fairy tales. His eight elements of Intertextuality help examining the intertextual link of the contemporary tales with the older ones with the motive of highlighting the postmodernist aspect in them. Snow White and the Huntsman probes forward some sharp and evident changes in the storyline, characters description, roles and in different patterns of motives which are quite pluralist and decentralized than the older perspectives.
Keywords: Postmodernism, Intertextuality, Hypertext, Hypotext, Fairy Tales.

Fragmented Associations and Alienated Characters in Theodore Dreiser’s Trilogy of Desire

This research paper is an attempt to highlight the American society by treating fragmented associations and alienated characters as a social process in Theodore Dreiser’s Trilogy of Desire (1972). Fragmentation and alienation refer to the process of separation of self from others in various categories such as emotional detachment, social impartiality and mental objectivity. The result is isolation from the rest of group through set of behaviours. After the study it appears that heredity, desire, environment, and emotional attachment played a significant role in formation of crime and shaping the psychological scars of the main characters. Associations, Fragmentation and alienation are applied correctly for describing social problems in American Literature. All these clarify the notion of disjointed families as well as fragmented associations along with social surroundings. Much has been written about Theodore Dreiser and his works but it seems that less attention is paid to fragmentation and alienation. The Characters of Theodore Dreiser shape their objectives by violating social, religious and legal ethics for economic stability which is beyond their control. Various relations are destroyed for emotional satisfaction and search for personal benefits. The family of Theodore Dreiser is also fragmented and represent the same broken families in his novels. Frank Cowperwood’s first association with Lilian Semple is destroyed as she remains alienated due to his unstable nature. Aileen Butler fragmented her family through the emotional attachment with Frank Cowperwood through which she remains alienated at the end. Berenice Fleming also shows her loyalty as mistress of aged man, Frank Cowperwood, which is a source of alienation for her. Marx's theory of alienation as my framework is applied to describe the historical transformation of society and the ensuing structural conditions, namely capitalism, which bring fragmentation and alienation in Trilogy of Desire (1972) (Fictional world) generally and specially in the entire world (real). The present research is conducted in line with the qualitative research method. It is hoped that this study would help to motivate the future researchers to delve into the motivational and consequential effects of the same.
Keywords: Association, Fragmentation, Alienation, Capitalism.

An Overview of China’s Policies on Foreign Real Estate Investment Prior to the Early 2000s

China’s real estate market has been an attractive destination for foreign capital since it initiated reforms to open its economy. The unprecedented expansion of urbanization, the expectation of currency appreciation, and China’s accession to the WTO have all intensified the trend for excessive foreign capital flowing into the sector. In particular, the cancellation of welfare housing since 1998 has created a new structure for the provision of housing, with a market mechanism, which requires real estate projects to be developed by private parties, and creates valuable opportunities for both domestic and foreign investors. This article will provide a general delineation of China’s real estate policies prior to the early 2000s, particularly the policies stipulated in the Foreign Investment Industrial Guidance Catalogues (FIIGCs) and specific domestic rules issued by the central and local authorities on foreign real estate investment. It is found that, among all of the restrictive stipulations, curtailing speculative investment is the primary, if not the only, regulatory target. A critical analysis illustrates the economic concerns that limiting the access of speculative investment into China’s real estate sector will threaten financial stability, foreign exchange stability and overall economic growth. This article is divided into three parts, the first part addresses the general policies on foreign investment under the FIIGC; the second part addresses the the development of policies specifically pertaining to foreign entities and individuals conducting real estate investment in China; the third part assesses the effects of the restrictive policies on speculative capital. The final part concludes.
Keywords: Foreign Real Estate Investment, Speculative Investment, Opinions 171, Circular 50.
XIAOJING QIN 47-54 Download

Effect of Organizational Politics on Work Outcomes: A Moderating Role of Political Skills

This study investigates a moderating effect of political skills in the relationship of employee outcomes and perceived organizational politics (POP) in the context of private organizations in KP Pakistan. Studying through the lenses of social exchange and expectancy theory, we examine the different work outcomes such that job performance and employee commitment among employees suffering in deteriorating political environment. Data were collected from various NGO sector in Peshawar and analyzed using SPSS. Using the sample size of 90 working employees, the results of this study reveal that perception of organizational politics have negative effects on employee performance and commitment level of an employees, however this negative relationship is mitigated through the moderating variable of political skills. This implies that in the presence of enhanced political skills, employees can overcome the negative effects of organisational politics over their performance and commitment levels. Therefore political skills stand pertinent for promoting productive politics within organisations and to improve degrees of work outcome. Implications, limitations and future directions of this research are discussed in the end.
Keywords: Organizational Politics, Job performance, Employee Commitment, Political Environment, Political Skills.
ALI MUHAMMAD and MURAD ALI 55-68 Download

Toni Morrison and Her Art of Storytelling in Jazz

The present research study has been conducted on “Toni Morrison and Her Art of Storytelling in Jazz”. This study aims to look at Morrison‟s art of storytelling focusing specially on her novel Jazz. Jazz offers the best specimen text through which Morrison‟s text can be analyzed. In Jazz, Morrison deploys a very elusive and mystical narrator, who is highly self-conscious. The present studycontends that the narrator of Jazz is iconoclastic. S/he is not the traditional narrator, third person omniscient narrator. Different critics have different opinions about the narrator in Jazz. Some critics think that it is the voice of thunder the epigraph of the novel Jazz refers to or begins with: “I am the sound of thunder, Seth, I know that woman.”The epigraph is prophetic. It announces not only the theme but also the role of the narrator. What is new about this research is the idea that the narrator is more than the voice of the thunder as she embodies so many things and enacts so many roles. Textual analysis has been used as a research method to interpret and analyze the text with the help of extra-textual knowledge such as historical and cross references, storytelling and narrator perspectives, and secondary resources. This study demonstrates the fluid, mercurial and protean nature of the narrator whose voice or narration cannot be reduced to a single formulaic definition.
Keywords: Storytelling, Narrative Voice, Mystical Author, Textual Analysis, Modernist Paradigm.

From Babar to Aurangzib: A Historical Review of Mughal’s Textile Tent Tradition

This study is a historical review of Mughal tradition of textile tents which have long been used in the Mughal dynasty from Bābar to Aurangzīb. It further delineates Mughal art of the tent, camp, pavilion, from moving idiom to a luxurious life, however, they have been neglected as an art form in the subcontinent particularly in Pakistan. In their historical context, they served as a mobile court as well as for metropolitan affairs and wars and have left impacts on the tentage culture of many countries. This study argues that the tents and textiles serve as a type of conspicuous show created by skilled people who exercise creativity by adapting accepted design conventions to ritual and social roles. Through written records and the contents analysis of visuals, this paper maintains that Mughal tent techniques have been replaced with contemporary factory printed fabric bearing patterns from the traditional heritage of later half of the 20th century. It is maintained in the study that the Mughal Dynasty's luxuriously decorated cloth tent drapes that are conventionally made with textile techniques such as appliqué, brocade, silk and velvet have influenced our modern art and design. This paper further identifies the evolution of the historical textile tent basics that have helped form the modern use of tents and the influence of Mughal in detail, which are mainly rich in textile materials and methods. This study is an effort to provide a documentation for the examination of the textile content, textile structure and textile architecture of the Mughal Textile tent.
Keywords: Aspak, Art form, Culture, Punjab, Tentage, Trellis, Tentmakers.

Analysis of Health Policy Making Process in Pakistan

Health is one of the basic needs and it is the responsibility of government to extend health facilities to every citizen. Health policy in Pakistan faces challenges at policy making level. After providing situational analysis of health sector, many flaws in health policy making are identified. This article explains the history of health policy making in Pakistan and has identified the loopholes which describes the conventional accounts of health policy failures. Over last 73 years since the conception of Pakistan as an independent state; policy making process has not yet been institutionalized as the last approved health policy of Pakistan is dated back to the year 2001. After18th amendment in the constitution of Pakistan; health became provincial subject and all provinces developed their own health strategies. This paper has analyzed Punjab’s health sector strategy (2019-2028) through the lens of sense making technique and highlights the issues of unclear goals, influence of donor funding agencies and insights from developed world which results in problem-solution bias. This study has identified donor influence on health policy and indicates areas that requires attention of policy makers. This study also provides reasons of the failure of health policy in Pakistan.
Keywords: Policy Making, Donor Agencies, Donor Influence, Health Sector Strategy.

Neuro-Linguistics Programming Techniques as Manipulative Moves: Critical Discourse Analysis of Pakistani Politicians' Speeches

Political leadership behavior is a crucial area of study in political science. It is one field that focuses on how political leaders tend to affect, manipulate, and influence the people to win their vote, support, and trust and how they outline the public psyche. Neuro-Linguistic Programming is developing as a set of methods that utilize the intensity of words in impacting others. This multidisciplinary study combines both disciplines to investigate the types of verbal repetition utilized to have Neurolinguistic Programming impact in the political initiative and speeches and how it controls individuals' psyche. Two persuasive speeches of two political leaders, Imran Khan and Shahbaz Shareef, were picked to serve the purpose of this study. The textual analysis was directed to break down the substance of the two talks, quantitatively and qualitatively. The outcomes showed that the two political leaders did utilize Neurolinguistic programming procedures to impact the general population perhaps unconsciously. The two leaders used various types of verbal repetition to brace the manipulative and influential forms of the utilized neuro-phonetic programming procedures. Lexical repetition was the most widely recognized type of repetition in the two leaders' political addresses. The study has implications for anyone striving to be a successful public speaker, especially in the socio-political sphere.
Keywords: Neuro-Linguistic Programming, Repetition, Political Leadership, Manipulation.

Electoral Agenda and Climate Change: A Comparative Study of Media Campaign of the UK, the US and Australian Political Parties

Manifestation of agenda by political parties proved to be one of the most important tactics for attracting voters in certain elections. Political parties in advanced democratic countries make use of various tools such as media to reach out the public and inculcate their manifesto. These political parties focus mainly on issues of national and international importance. The developing countries are thought to be very vulnerable to climate change due to poor institutional capacities, dependence on climate sensitive sectors, and lack of funds for addressing the issue of climate change. The developed countries of the world have been supporting the climate response in the developing countries through funding and technical assistance. This paper explored the status of the issue of climate change in their media electoral campaigns of political parties of the major climate donor countries namely United Kingdom, United States of America and Australia. These countries have democratic form of governments run by political parties. International commitments and responses to the issue of climate change are largely dependent on the programs and agenda of the same political parties. So the global response to climate change throughout the developing world depends mainly upon the policies and decision of the donor countries that are governed by political parties.
Keywords: Political Parties, Media Campaigns, Electoral Agenda, Climate Donors, Climate Response.

Impact of Gender, Education, and Socio economic Status on Frustration in Pakistani Context

Present research paper was intended to examine the impact of the demographics i.e., gender, education, and socio economic status on frustration. The convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data from population. The sample consisted of n= 288 students from different Pakistani universities (142 male & 146 female) ranging in age from 18 to 25 year. The Indigenous Frustration Scale was analyzed and gender, education, and socio economic status were used as demographic variables. Results demonstrated that there was no significant difference in level of frustration among graduation and post-graduation emerging adults. Results showed that Middle group in relation to collective sample of emerging adults experience high level of frustration. This paper is a minor part of my ph.D research work. The outcomes of the study have been talked in the light of specific Pakistani culture.
Keywords: Education, Frustration, Gender, Socio Economic Status.

Integrating Dogme ELT and Task-based Language Teaching Techniques to Improve Academic Essay Writing

English language is mostly learnt for academic and professional purposes all over the world, so most of the ELT (English Language Teaching) researchers and language instructors make efforts to share their effective and successful experiences of teaching language skills through ELT innovations. They highlight the merits and demerits of their teaching experiences in different contexts. They apply various teaching approaches and methods for effective learning outputs. They also integrate different teaching methods for better results. The purpose of this classroom action research was to explore the impacts of Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) and Dogme ELT integrated teaching in an academic essay writing class. Data was collected through a pre-test, a post-test and a learners’ feedback questionnaire and was analyzed through mixed methods. The learners’ performance in the pre-test, the post-test and their responses from the feedback questionnaire proved that the integration of these two modern teaching approaches was a very effective and successful teaching experiment to improve learners’ academic essay writing. Therefore, Dogme ELT should also be included in the syllabuses of teacher training programs at different levels.
Keywords: Integration, Dogme ELT, TBLT, Academic Essay Writing.

Analyzing State Failure and its Consequences in Omar Shahid Hamid’s The Prisoner

State failure refers to the weak writ of the state and failure of different state institutions to function for the welfare of the people. The present research analyses the novel The Prisoner in the context of state failure. Omar Shahid Hamid’s novel is set in Karachi, the largest city of Pakistan. Qualitative content analysis technique was used for data analysis. The work of Diamond (2015) was used to form a conceptual framework for this research. The novel presents Pakistan as a state where lawlessness abounds and citizens’ fundamental rights are frequently usurped. The present study in the light of the selected theoretical framework analyzed explicitly depicted state failure. The state properly failed to implement rule of law and making sure the provision of fundamental rights of every citizen. The state writ has been brazenly challenged again and again by unlawful forces. Justice is either denied or delayed and every institution pokes its nose into the affairs of other institution putting citizens’ fundamental human rights of life, liberty, justice, freedom, and general welfare etc. at stake and leaving them to experience unbearable pain and constantly suffering from one misery after another.
Keywords: State Failure, Weak Writ, Pakistan, Fundamental Rights, The Prisoner.

The Influence of Child Labor on Students’ Academic Performance at Elementary School Level in District Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

This study was conducted to find the influence of Child Labor (CL) on students’ academic performance at elementary school level in district Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Pakistan. The objective of the study was to compare Non-Child Labor (NCL) and Child Labor (CL) students over academic performance. To achieve the objective, causal-comparative research design was employed. Two hundred (200) students of grade 8th were selected through stratified random sampling techniques in such a way that the number of students in each stratum remained 100 (NCL = 100 and CL = 100 students). Two tools including a proforma for identification of children involved in CL, and Academic Performance Test (APT) consisted of five sections (English, General Science, Math, Social study, and Geography) were used to collect data. The reliability coefficient of the test was 0.785. Students’ responses were sorted out on APT consisting of 100 MCQs on four options. The analyzed data revealed that the NCL students were found superior to CL students in all sections of the academic performance and overall academic performance. It was recommended that the government, in close collaborations with NGOs, may reduce this gap through establishing Working Children Schools (WCS), and Evening Schools (ES) at urban and semi urban area in district Haripur. Further, the authorities at local level may establish free tuition centers in evening where students of social work of all educational institutions may teach to the working children to bridge the gap between NCL and CL children.
Keywords: Influence, Child Labor, Academic Performance, Gap, Evening Schools, Social Work.

Impact of Incorporating Short Stories in Enhancing the Reading Comprehension Skill of Undergraduate University EFL Learners in Lahore.

This study aimed at finding the impact of using short stories in enhancing the reading comprehension skills of EFL learners. It was a mixed-method approach study, both qualitative and quantitative data was collected. It was quasi-experimental research and two groups, experimental (consisting of 25 males and 23 females) and controlled group (consisting of 24 males and 21females) were participants for the study. Means of multiple-choice pretest-posttest scores were used to determine the level of improvement. Independent t-test was used to evaluate the significance of the difference in the outcome of controlled and experimental groups. Furthermore, One-way ANCOVA was used to eliminate the initial achievement difference. For qualitative data 7 Lecturers were interviewed and those lecturers were selected through purposive sampling. Result of the study suggested that short stories lay a positive impact on reading comprehension of the EFL learners.
Keywords: Reading Comprehension Skills, Short Stories, Undergraduate EFL Learners, Teachers.

Teacher Immediacy Practices of Secondary School Teachers: A Students’ Perspective

The major aim of the study was to explore the teacher immediacy among secondary school teachers. The study was descriptive in nature and followed quantitative and survey type research design for the exploration of teacher immediacy. The population of the study comprised all male and female students of Federal Government Secondary schools of Islamabad Capital Territory. The stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample of the study: total 56 (40% of total) Government secondary schools of boys and girls and1680 students were included in the sample. Teacher Immediacy Scale comprising twenty-six items was developed by the researcher for collection of the data. A pilot study was conducted to find out the reliability of the items of the research instruments which displayed that Cronbach’s Alpha value was .87 which means that the reliability value of the instrument was high. The findings of the study highlighted that majority of the teachers were rated high in exercising immediacy behaviours with students. It was revealed that male teachers exercised immediacy behaviours more than female teachers. The comparison of practicing the immediacy behaviours of urban and rural teachers displayed that there was no significant difference between their mean scores. It is proposed that teachers should practice immediacy behaviours in classroom while teaching and dealing students. This will enable them to improve their teaching and gain academic excellence by engaging students in classroom.
Keywords: Teacher Immediacy, Teachers, Students, Male, Female, Urban, Rural.

The Role of Social Media in Peace Building: An Analytical Case Study on Online Radicalization during Covid-19 and Options for Pakistan

The recent COVID 19 pandemic has increased importance of social media in peace building efforts. The pandemic has pushed global society towards the social networking and communication sites to continue their daily routines. At the same time the potential extremist groups have also realized the importance of these forums and are now more active than ever before. Now this is the time when Pakistani authorities should also gauge the seriousness of the threat in order to avoid the spread of violent narratives amongst the young segment of the societies especially the ones who are already vulnerable due to exposure to such platforms for educational as well as business purposes. This study aims to explore different kinds of role social media can play in peace building efforts during this recent COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study is not only to prevent the trends of radicalization from emerging in Pakistani society but also to develop community resilience in it.
Keywords: Social Media, Media System Dependency, Radicalization, Peace Building, COVID 19, Pakistan and Community Resilience.

Foreign Policy of Pakistan vis-à-vis China & Russia: Prospects of Cooperation

Historically, Russia, China, and Pakistan have been the countries of unusual importance in the Global Politics, particularly after the 1970s. On one side, China and Pakistan are proudly maintaining a brotherhood-relationship, which is one of the warmest and cordial ever seen in the international relations. On the contrary, Russo-Pak relations have been a victim of resentment, distrust, and a hint of bitterness due to evident historic reasons, especially the role of Pakistan in the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In the contemporary world, relationships between these three states have seen a transformation driven by several factors of strategic importance, and the three countries have witnessed enhanced cooperation in economic, cultural, and political aspects under the umbrella of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). It is proven from research and political think-tanks that the cooperation of the states in this region is vital in achieving regional growth through SCO. The current research study aims to bring in an investigation of the pragmatic projections of collaboration based on major factors related to economic, political, strategic, security, cultural, and religious aspects. Furthermost, the most necessary factors of cooperation demand serious and meaningful goals and effective steps in command respective to the actualized points of cooperation. This research study has two major sections that dive into a little diplomatic history, and importance is given to find out about the ways that lead towards the enhanced mutual cooperation between the three countries.
Keywords: China, Cooperation, Pakistan, Russia.

Theorizing South Asian Hydropolitics: Interdependence, Identity or Power?

This paper analyses the hydropolitics of South Asia from the perspectives of liberalism (interdependence), constructivism (identity) and realism (power). It argues that the numerous South Asian water treaties across the Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basins and the religion-driven partition of the basins in 1947 and its fallout, make the respective (neo)liberal and constructivist perspectives appear relevant. However, like the regional international politics, South Asian hydropolitics too lends itself better to (neo)realist explanations. The (balance of) power-centered regional security overflow to the realm of water and makes water competition an integral part of the larger competitive and scarce security of South Asia.
Keywords: Hydropolitics, India, Power, South Asia, Theory; Water.

Effects of Forensically Relevant Face Coverings on Acoustic Properties of Pahari Central Vowels

This study investigates the face coverings’ effects on the acoustic properties of two Pahari central vowels (ə, a:). Three types of face coverings (helmet, mask, niqab) are used in this study. Ten participants (five males and five females) are being selected to investigate this phenomenon. Speech material consists of two monosyllabic words (məl, ma:l) in CVC context and these words are repeated three times by each speaker. Praat software is used for recordings and getting formant (F1, F2) frequencies and duration. Regression analysis is performed to find out the face coverings’ effects on acoustic properties of vowels. The results show that helmet, mask and niqab have significant effect on F1and F2 of /ə/ but has no significant affect on duration. In case of /a:/, the statistics show that mask and niqab donot have significant effect on F1, F2 and duration, but helmet has significant effect on F2 and duration.
Keywords: Facewears, Central Vowels, Acoustic Analysis, Formants, Duration.

Critical Discourse Analysis of Asif Ali Zaradi’s Speech at the UN General Assembly 2012.

The present study analyzes the speech of the former Pakistani president Mr. Asif Ali Zardari that was delivered at the UN general Assembly meeting in September 2012. The main objective of the study is to find out power relations and hegemony in the global political context through interdiscursive analysis of the speech. The researcher has used Fairclough’s (1992) concept of intertextuality and hegemony as theoretical base of the study. The study finds that Zardari struggles to construct, sustain and fracture power relations through interdiscursive references. He intensifies and de-intensifies certain ideologies through mixing of discourses, genres and styles. His discourse unveils his subordinate position in the international political order. The study exposes his struggle to establish a positive image of himself in the context of internal as well as international politics. This struggle is aimed at winning a power position in the internal as well as international politics.
Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, Interdiscursivity, Hegemony, Political Discourse, Ideologies.
Unjustified Exclusion of Environmental Rights From Human Rights: An Alarming Situation: A Case Study of Islamic Republic of Pakistan
The Environmental Rights are defined as an expansion of the basic and fundamental human rights which requires and deserves by the mankind. The prevailing pollution issues are widely leading to the contamination of the water supplies all over the world. The duty of state is grounded on the mandate of “justice” it is widely recognized or accepted that the state has duty and obligation to provide environmental justice which is easily accessible through proper adjudication and effective environmental tribunals, which are a significant part of the customary international law. The word access to environmental justice exonerate that legal rights of environment has become a customary norm and substantial part that has been reaffirmed under several international conventions one of the most prominent one is the Rio Declaration on Environmental and Development. The concept of environmental justice in Pakistan was first introduced in Ali Steel Industry Vs. Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (2016 CLD 569), in which it was settled that “the protection of environment is an alienable right. Under the article 9 of the constitution of Pakistan the Right to Life Right to encompasses a right to a cleaner and healthier environment.”
Keywords: Environmental Justice, Exclusion of Rights, Fundamental Rights, Human Rights, Judicial Setup.

Theorizing the Hazara Prosecution in Quetta

The Hazara community of Pakistan has a long history of sufferings. The major chunk of Hazara community that is currently residing in Balochistan’s district of Quetta, has faced massive violence and ethnic cleansing from the terrorist groups like Taliban and LEJ. It has been more than a decade since the brutal violence against Hazara community have been brought into the light. A lot of literature has been produced on the matter at hand, but a better theoretical explanation lacked. This paper aims at providing different theoretical explanations to develop a better understanding about the grievances of Hazara community. This paper strives to present a more rational explanation of ongoing violence through the lenses of different theories of ethnic & sectarian conflict. Furthermore, the role of state and its institutions in this regard has also been discussed. The possible causes behind the failure of state institutions in protecting Hazara community are also discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Hazara, Community, Quetta, Pakistan.

Implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Distance Education in Pakistan

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is the basic source of new knowledge and information. It diversified all the branches of knowledge. It is changing the scene of education drastically from formal method to distance education. Distance education is getting popularize in the contemporary age. The objectives of the study were, to explore the steps regarding training of learners to use ICT, to analyze the use of ICT by learners and to get suggestions to implement ICT in distance education in Pakistan. The researchers used qualitative research design for the study. Population of the study was all the students of M. Phil in Virtual University, Pakistan. Convenient sampling technique was used for the selection of sample for the study. Interview sheet was used to collect data from the respondents. The study found that no basic training was provided to the learners about application and implementation of ICT. Learners were not able to use ICT gadgets appropriately. The conclusion of the study recommended that learners must be trained and forced to use ICT to get better results in their educational career.
Keywords: ICT, Distance Education, Implementation.

Death in the Context of Tradition and Modernity

The purpose of this research was to explore the ways in which people belonging to the worldviews of modernity and tradition differ in terms of their death attitudes. Two studies were carried out. The first study was based on text analysis. Relevant pages and passages from Ashraf Ali Thanvi’s Bahishti Zewar (Heavenly Ornaments), Imam Ghazali’s Kimia e Sa’adat (The Alchemy of Happiness), Bertrand Russell’s Why I Am Not a Christian and Sigmund Freud’s Beyond the Pleasure Principle were taken and analyzed through grounded theory methodology. In the second study, three traditionalist scholars and three modernist scholars were interviewed through semistructured interviewing technique. Grounded theory was used for the analysis of the transcripts. The findings revealed that the major dimensions of traditional and modern death attitudes are widely at odds with each other. Two contrasting theoretical models are developed to illustrate the affect-behavior-cognition triad of death attitudes rooted in modernity and tradition.
Keywords: Death and Dying, Death Attitudes, Tradition, Modernity.

Relationship between Teaching Quality and Students’ Satisfaction at University Level

Teaching is one of the fundamental components of education therefore; to determine the level of learners’ satisfaction, quality of teaching is required. This study aimed to examine either the quality of teaching has any relationship towards students’ satisfaction in regard to their learning and uplift the quality of education on the whole. Population of faculty of social sciences in University of Sargodha is comprised on eight departments. Department of Education, Psychology, Economics and International Relations are included in the sample through Random sampling technique. Students enrolled in the morning session (2018-20) from sampled departments were taken trough census method for the study. In morning program 198 students enrolled and all of the students were selected as sample due to small population size. Students who have spent at least one year in the university have been included in the sample. Responses were taken through close ended questionnaires. Findings revealed that there is strong positive correlation r = .613 between quality based teaching and students satisfaction. On basis of findings it is concluded that fair evaluation method, assistance from teacher at the right time, well maintained course organization and teaching methodology are the four pillars of quality based teaching which satisfy students and leads toward quality of education.
Keywords: Teaching, Quality Education, Students Satisfaction, Public Sector University.

A Qualitative Study on Exploring Head Teachers and Teachers’ Experiences on Visits of Monitoring and Evaluation Assistants in Public Sector Primary Schools

The main purpose of this research study was to explore the experiences of head teachers and teachers on the visits of monitoring and evaluation assistants (MEAs) in public sector primary schools. A qualitative, phenomenological research design was used to conduct the study. All the head teachers and teachers of the public sector primary schools of Tehsil Kamalia, District Toba Tek Singh were the population of the study. Four head teachers (2 male and 2 female) and four primary school teachers (2 male and 2 female) of same four government primary schools of Tehsil Kamalia were purposively selected. Semi structured interviews were conducted to collect data from participants. Narrative analysis was used to analyze the semi-structured interviews. Teachers and head teachers said that MEAs’ monitoring regarding academic, financial and physical infrastructure helps the schools to maintain its record, building and academic abilities of students. They said that positive impacts of MEAs’ visits in schools include increase in percentage of students’ attendance and teachers’ attendance. MEAs’ visit also increases the cleanliness of the school and negative impacts of MEAs include the decline of percentage of student and teachers’ attendance after MEAs’ visit. Teachers and head teachers said that there should be more than one visit of MEAs’ in a month as well as there should be Literacy and Numeracy Drive test of every class.
Keywords: MEAs, Head Teachers, Teachers, Primary Education, LND Test.

Written Corrective Feedback Practices of English Teachers: An Empirical Evidence of Secondary School

The quantitative survey study was designed to examine teachers’ perceptions about their Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) practices at secondary level. The population consisted of all the teachers who are teaching English subject in public and private sector schools at secondary level in Lahore District. However, 160 (80 male and 80 female) teachers participated in this study that was randomly selected from 60 (30 public and 30 private) schools. Teachers’ perceptions about WCF were measured by administrating Teachers’ Perceptions of Written Corrective Feedback Questionnaire (TWCFPQ) developed by the researchers. The validity was checked by taking expert opinion and the reliability was Cronbach’s Alpha=0.849. Multiple statistical techniques i.e. mean, standard deviation, independent sample t-test, and ANOVA were applied. Analysis of teachers’ perceptions of WCF demonstrated that teachers mainly use indirect WCF on students’ writing. Results exhibited that private secondary school teachers give more direct WCF as compare to public school teachers. Results also demonstrate that male teachers give more direct corrective feedback (CF) in comparison with female teachers. It is recommended that professional development training programs may be arranged to train in-service teachers to use different WCF strategies to choose from according to the need and level of students. Furthermore, a guide may be provided on which teachers can base their choice of types of WCF and that guide may offer explanations of types of errors along the way’s teachers can respond to each error in student writing.
Keywords: Feedback, Written Corrective Feedback, Secondary School.

Efficacy of Word Wall and Lecture Methods: Modifying Students’ Learning at Elementary Level

Learning of students is associated with teaching methodologies adopted by teachers during academic activities. This study explores the impact of Lecture and Word Wall methods on achievement scores of students at elementary level. The study was quasi experimental research and selected 50 students from class 6th, where 25 students each were placed in Control Group and Experimental Group. The Control Group and Experimental Group were taught through Lecture and Word Wall methods respectively. The data was collected from the students on teacher made test through written test (pretests and posttests) for up to 10 weeks and was analyzed using independent sample t-test and Analysis of Covariance. The results revealed that the students’ academic achievement scores were high when the teachers adopted word wall as a method of teaching in the classroom. The study recommends the introduction of new methodologies in teaching learning process in order to enhance the learning of students and provision of training to students regarding the retention of academic concepts.
Keywords: Word Wall (WW), Lecture method (LM), Student performance, Experimental Research.

An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of External and Domestic Debt on Economic Growth in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Countries

South Asian countries are surrounded by severe socio-economic problems that threaten the economic future of the countries. Due to a fragile tax base and mounting budgetary deficits, they are continuously relying on both external and domestic debts that have serious implications on their economic growth. The study empirically analyzes the impact of external debt and domestic debt on the economic growth of SAARC countries, i.e. Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lank. For this purpose, panel data of 31 years from 1990 to 2020 has been taken. Fixed Effect Model and Panel ARDL techniques have been applied to examine the long-run relationship among the variables. Besides external debt and domestic debt for policy prospective, some policy, fundamental and shock variables have been used to see their impact on economic growth. The study results reveal that external debt and domestic debt negatively affect economic growth both in the short run and long run. It clearly indicates that the governments fail to utilize the borrowed resources generated through internal or external sources productively and adequately. The study recommends productive and efficient utilization of borrowed resources to avoid their negative repercussions on the economy.
Keywords: SAARC, External Debt, Domestic Debt, ARDL, Fixed Effect Model, Economic Growth.
Use of Suicide Bombing as a Military Operation: A Case Study of the Pashtuns
Pashtuns have been known as specialists of guerrilla warfare. Use of suicide bombers against their opponent has never been a part of Pashtuns’ strategy. However, ever since the Americans have stepped into Afghanistan in 2001, there has been an extensive employment of suicide bombers by the Taliban against the American forces. The Pashtuns’ aggressive suicide strategy has proved extremely successful at least on these three counts: firstly, preventing the world’s lone superpower from achieving its strategic objectives in Afghanistan; secondly, forcing the US to the negotiating table with the Taliban; and thirdly, following in the footsteps of previous invaders, forced to withdraw from Afghanistan. The situation also agitates the researchers’ minds to inquire as to why Pashtuns opted to use suicide bombing as a military operation in the Afghan conflict in the post-2001 era? The main argument of this research is that in their struggles against foreign invaders, Pashtuns have always adopted different strategies in accordance with the ground realities, and the use of suicide bombers since 2001 has been part of this historic trend. In this research, secondary sources have been used for data collection whereas theoretical lens of Pape theory of suicide terrorism has been employed in testing the hypothesis.
Keywords: Taliban, Suicide bombing, US in Afghanistan, Taliban Military Operation.

Investigating the Social Functions of Code Switching in Mohsin‟s „The Diary of a Social Butterfly‟

This study attempts to explore the social functions of code-switching & code- mixing in English novel “The Diary of a Social Butterfly” written by Moni Mohsin. Random House Publishers published this novel in 2008. The focus of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of how the writer has used code-mixing and code-switching as a tool to highlight the norms and behaviors of Pakistani society. The researchers have used the mixed method of inquiry for this research. The data has been analyzed in the milieu of framework given by Myers-Scotton in 2006 and Albakray & Hancock in 2008. The findings of this study reveal that the writer has repeatedly used the kinship terminologies. Moreover, the writer (Moni Mohsin) has used the phenomenon of code-mixing in order to depict different social functions. Social functions of code-switching examined in “The diary of a social Butterfly” are portrayal of the culture, depiction of power, the construction of identity and satire. This research concludes that the use of code-mixing and code-switching in a literary text is a versatile phenomenon. It is hoped that this research would be beneficial and expedient for Pakistani people and for multi-lingual writers.
Keywords: Code-Switching, Code-Mixing, Multilingualism, Culture, Social Functions, The Diary of a Social Butterfly.

Kanīkār, Ὰmlīkār & Machine-Made Shawls: Kashmir’s Tradition in the Textile Economic Market of Pakistan

The Kashmir shawl is entrenched in an intricate practice of craftsmanship that goes back to minimum five hundred years. This is a South Asian perspective of the Kashmir shawls narrative focusing on one of its techniques, the Ἁmlīkār. This paper re-supports the design representation and methodological progress of this shawl from Kanīkār to Ἁmlīkār and local foundations by highlighting on topics formerly overlooked in previous records. The shawl roots from Kashmir, with affluent sponsorship helping it to flourish. Its shifting decorative forms, area-based discrepancies in Persia (Iran) and Punjab and its huge effect on the European creativity all merge to produce a history designed to involve the reader. Its individuality and serviceability are in a permutation of reasons that have generated it to be almost impossible to supersede. There have been modifications of the form and size but none achieved success in generating the unique sensitivity of warp and weft in fabric, fiber and layout that includes the renowned splendor of the shawl. Surviving as a design timeless that has expanded out of an unforgettable indigenous aesthetic, the shawls allure is in its capability to symbolize permanence as well as transformation. The idea is to develop a conversation about the approach of cultural practice and its similar purpose in the economics of this craft, focusing on the Ἁmlīkār shawls present at the Lahore Museum to highlight their importance, history and comparison to the present shawls. The research will reflect on the South Asian perspective of traditional craftsmanship and its economic value.
Keywords: Handloom, Shawl Weaving, Kashmir, Embroidery, Material Culture.

Leadership and Management Practices in Transforming Schools into Learning Organizations

Leadership and management practices contribute to learning organizations. Transformational leaders devote considerable time towards developing a shared vision amongst staff regarding the fundamental purpose of the school. They develop mechanisms to enhance communication across the schools, and establish structures that enable the staff to embrace a truly participatory decision making. This study about the role of educational leadership and management practices in transforming schools into learning organizations, aimed to explore how headteachers’ transformational leadership and management practices may facilitate progress towards a learning organization. The experiences of three secondary headteachers were used as the basis of the research. The data were collected through the qualitative case study research method, using semi–structured interviews, observations and analysis of relevant documents. The results revealed that the headteachers definitely made differences in their schools to make them learning organizations. The findings of this study are significant as they provide insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the educational leadership and management practices in transforming schools into learning organizations and also into what additional support is required for the headteachers to transform their schools. This study highlights the recommendations in the area of school as learning organizations and transformational leadership, so as to make the concept of school as learning organizations more amenable to the school stakeholders.
Keywords: Learning Organization, Schools as Learning Organizations, Transformational Leadership, Management Practices.

Analysis and Understanding of Anxiety owing to Statistics in Educational Research

The aim of this study is to examine anxiety using appropriate statistical techniques in social sciences research at M.Phil./Ph.D. programs, particularly at the Faculty of Education of the University of Sindh Pakistan. The sample of the study was designed through stratified random sampling. The sample population consisted of 500 M.Phil. / Ph.D. students. The sample size consisted of 100 participants out of which 55% were male and 45% female. After obtaining the consent of the participant, data was gathered through the three-point Likert scale questionnaire. This data was analyzed through the application of t-test and Chi-square test manually. The major findings of this study indicated that students’ have no basic concepts of statistics and mathematics, as well as various statistical tools, and software are not being taught and the time duration for practices of inferential statistics as compared to descriptive statistics is relatively short which leads to anxiety. Foundation courses in statistics are recommended for the entire scholar before going for advanced Statistics. Maximum use of statistical software should be encouraged.
Keywords: Anxiety, Educational Research, Statistical Techniques.

Development and Validation of Teacher’s Social Emotional Teaching Competence Questionnaire (SETCQ) for School Teachers

Social and emotional environment of the classroom is more important to children development of personality than any other aspect of school lives. It helps students learn how to manage and solve problems. When this comes into mind, students learn how to solve academic problems. Keeping in view the importance, a scale to measure teacher’s role to keep the social environment of classroom was developed. Initially 80 items were developed from literature review on learning environment, effective communication, life skills and collaboration for learning. Expert opinion was sought from psychologist and educationist for the validity of items. Items that were marked irrelevant were deleted. A pool of 65 items were left, that were then distributed to 200 teachers, equally distributed by gender, to measure themselves on five- point Likert’s Scale. Data was fed into SPSS to check the reliability. The final scale consists of 50 items with .92 Cronbach Alpha reliability. The scale also meets the requirements of internal consistencies, factor analysis, inter-item correlation. The scale was also checked for observational purposes, as head and peer observation of teacher make a correct judgement of his work. The inter-rater reliability of the scale is .92.
Keywords: Measurement of SEL, School Teachers, Social & emotional Learning, Teaching.

A Trojan Horse, a Game Changer, a Silver Bullet and What Not? A Study of Metaphors in the Discourses of China- Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)

This paper explores the use of linguistic and conceptual metaphors employed to describe the material and economic aspects in the discourses centered on the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). Multiple metaphors are found in the data which are examined through a corpus analysis. The cognitive linguistics provides the background to this study where the notion of conceptual metaphors as proposed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980) has been used as the main theoretical mainstay. The data comprises the Pakistani and Chinese news articles and reports. The study mainly focuses on thirteen conceptual metaphors developed through the presence of their lexical realizations. The journey metaphor gains the highest frequency with 2721/7192 concordance hits, among a range of other metaphors such as war, human being, up/down, weather, tool/device, building, game, family, wealth, history and science. The study uncovers the truth about linguistic metaphors and their diverse applicability, as rhetorical devices to influence, motivate and sway the readers engaged with an economic text. Besides, metaphors and metaphoric expressions in economic writings are also used for the communicative functions of clarification, personification, objectification, opposition, evaluation, presuppositions, descriptions, and comparisons.
Keywords: Economic Discourses, Linguistic and Material Aptness, Cognitive/Conceptual Metaphor, CPEC Rhetoric, Metaphors as Rhetorical Devices, Corpus Analysis.

Parents’ and Teachers’ Role in stopping Street Harassment: An Exploration through Social Cognitive Theory in Rawalpindi City (Pakistan)

This present study aims to understand street harassment phenomenon from a sociological perspective in Rawalpindi city. This study explores the role of parents and teachers in educating their children and students on street harassment through a qualitative approach. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) was the theoretical underpinning of this research. The data were gathered through twenty semi structured interviews (ten with parents and ten with teachers) by using non-probability sampling technique. Document analysis and non-participant observation methods were also utilized in this research. Thematic analysis was done to analyze the perception and role of parents and teachers on social issues such as street harassment. The findings of the research suggest that parents and teachers play an important role in creating awareness among children regarding street harassment. It is explored that parents’ behavior is important for children to learn different social issues. It is also found that teachers can help their students by creating awareness and counseling of victims (students). Furthermore, it is revealed that government efforts like proper implementation of street harassment laws are needed to lessen the issue of street harassment from Pakistani society.
Keywords: Street harassment, Parents, Teachers, Students, Social Cognitive Theory, Laws.

A GIS based Approach to the Aged Dependency Ratio and Economic Dependency Ratio of the Aged Population of District Khairpur

The economic problem of the aged population, including poverty, is inseparably bound up with the size of its dependency in economic, social and structural terms, and its geographic dimensions have great significance. The fundamental purpose of present research is determination of spatial distribution of aged population, aiming aged dependency ratio by taluka, and economic aged dependency ratio of district Khairpur. The study follows quantitative approach. Arc GIS 10.1 is utilized to analyze the data focusing census report of 1998 as the population. The findings of the study highlights that the burden of aged population is higher on the young population as there is scarcity of resources and unemployment ratio is high; which is major cause of anxiety among young ones. The results also indicated that poverty is root cause behind that stress and horrible dilemma. The study highly recommended that unemployment ratio must be reduced by creating employment opportunities to youth to eliminate poverty.
Keywords: Aged, Dependency, Economic Ratio, Population, GIS.

Housing for All No More a Dream in Pakistan: Recommendations to Improve the Legal Framework Relating to Housing Industry in Pakistan

Pakistan is a party to UN Habitat Agenda; under it housing for all has been envisaged as a basic human right. Government of Pakistan is trying its level best to achieve the goal of housing for all in Pakistan but there are many grey areas in the Legal Framework relating to housing industry in Pakistan. The present legal framework relating to housing industry in Pakistan is weak, unable to check malpractices, so it needs to be improved to achieve the goal of housing for all as envisaged by UN Habitat Agenda, in the light of international best practices. The Pakistani legal framework is not enough good to tackle all the obstacles to achieve the goal of housing for all. Even in the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 does not contain the right of housing as a fundamental right; hence it cannot be enforced through the courts of law like other fundamental rights. This article provides a detailed analysis of present legal framework relating to housing industry in Pakistan as well as it highlights the grey areas in the housing laws of Pakistan. It is also discussed whether the relevant laws at Federal, provincial and local level needs to be modified and improved to achieve the goal of housing for all or not. To achieve this goal, a combination of analytical and critical approach has been adopted. Primary sources like laws and case laws have been used to do qualitative research to suggest various amendments in the relevant laws of all the layers of the Governments i.e. Federal, Provincial and local. This article contains some recommendations and suggestions to strengthen the Legal Framework as well as the regulatory mechanism relating to housing industry in Pakistan. It also aims to suggest various recommendations to the all the levels of the Governments as well as to give input to amend and update the relevant laws to make them suitable to achieve the goal of housing for all.
Keywords: Housing for all, Legal Framework, Housing Industry, UN Habitat Agenda.

Low Literacy of Females at Secondary School District Matiari Sindh; its Causes and Consequences

The study was designed to investigate the causes and consequences of low literacy rate among females in district Matiari at secondary schools’ level. It was a descriptive research and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) technique was adopted by using both quantitative and qualitative techniques for data collection. The present research study wanted to get the opinion of rural females and their parents on various reasons causing low female literacy and high dropout ratio at secondary schools’ level. Data were collected from 478 rural females. Four talukas and 15 UCs of district Matiari were included in the sample. Moreover, PRA technique was held with rural females and parents in each UC to ask their opinion about causes and consequences of low literacy. All possible factors causing low literacy were grouped into domestic chores, low admission of girls in school, high dropout ratio, gender-based discrimination, socio cultural barriers, and school related factors. One sample t-test statistics was applied to know the overall responses of the respondents. Majority of the respondents were agreed on the above causes and consequences. Therefore, the hypothesis of the research is accepted based on t-test score, mean score and the significance level which is < 0.05. These causes have negative consequences on female lives. To increase female literacy rate, government should pay attention on adult literacy for psychological training and awareness of parents as most respondents of the study replied that their parents do not allow for education. Secondary schools should be established in rural communities near the villages. Poverty reduction programs should be launched at tehsil and village level by establishing small industries so that parents do not make lame excuses of poverty factor.
Keywords: Female Literacy, Domestic Chores, Low enrollment of girls, Dropout, Gender-based Discrimination, Socio–cultural barriers.

Environmental Issues, Climate Change and Youth Risk Perception: A Quantitative Survey from Students in Islamabad, Pakistan

The current study aimed to investigate the risk perception of the students regarding environmental problems and climate change. The study was conducted through a quantitative survey technique, using questionnaire as a tool for data collection. The universe of the study was Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad and data was collected from a sample of 350 respondents. The sample was selected from the population through a multi-stage cluster sampling technique. The results indicate that majority of the students are informed and concerned about environmental risks. Interestingly, 78.4% of the students consider humans as responsible for the increasing environmental hazards. While 60.1% disagreed with the statement that the future generation could have a better environment. However, a majority 80.2% of the students were found optimistic about curtailing environmental risks through human intervention. Some statistically significant gender variations also exist about risk perception as female students were found to be more concerned about environmental risks in comparison to male students.
Keywords: Environment, Climate change, Risk perception, Students, Pakistan.

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