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Academy of IRMBR Volume  9, February, 2021
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Dysfunctional Law Against the Crime of Enforced Disappearances in Pakistan.

All rights associated with mankind, either human rights or fundamental rights are of immense importance, however the rights associated with the right of freedom and liberty is perhaps the most significant one. It is observed that the deprivation of liberty of disappeared persons, having no protection of law, clearly shows that fundamental rights regarding liberty and freedom are negated to a greater extent, enshrined under the constitution of Pakistan 1973. Religiously or logically, it is believed that a man is born free his intrinsic rights are protected ang guarded by nature itself. However, to see whether this freedom is actual or superficial, one must investigate several aspects because the term freedom has remained an unclear connotation of ones right of liberty and freedom. The purpose of this article is to consider the dysfunctionality of laws related to rights associated with freedom and to provide practical solutions for emancipating a person from the shackles of society which are prevalent in forms of outdated norms and traditions which are considered reprehensible by many civilized societies.
Keywords: Enforced Disappearance, Laws, Violations, Fundamental Rights, Freedom, Protection, Detention, Detainee.

Rise of Hindutva Mind-Set and Saffronisation of Indian Society

Populism in twenty first century has found its way into the political arena of Indian politics. Historical outlook of Indian society suggests that identity crisis and radicalization in India has been persistent. Under the concept of populism, it is suggested that right wing populist ideologies have played an important role in building up the majority’s identity. Since 2014 Indian politics has been under a rule of religious ideals of Hindutva which has led to the Saffronisation of India at educational, societal and public level that has resulted in a dangerously volatile socio-political scenario.
Keywords: Hindutva, Saffronisation, Radicalization, Populism, India.

Use of Technological Gadget and its Effects on Children at Agah Walidain Program and Beyond during Covid-19 Pandemic Lockdown

A novel coronavirus (Covid-19) spread across Pakistan and exerted its effects directly or indirectly on everyone including children at early ages. Thus, Covid-19 lockdown enforced parents to engage their children especially at Agah Walidain- Informed Parents (AW-IP) Program under Rupani Foundation (RF) Pakistan and at Early Childhood Development (ECD) level with technological gadgets at home. To explain the phenomena, parental perceptions on their children’s use of technology in terms of its positive and negative effects, during Covid-19 pandemic lockdown period, were explored. Employing cluster sampling technique, a total of 150 private ECD school teachers as parents of the children, less than 9 years of age, were selected from Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) as a sample of the study. A self-structured questionnaire, developed on five-point Likert Scale, was self-administered to collect the required data. The data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Both Descriptive (percentages and frequencies) and Inferential (independent t-test) statistics were applied. The findings of the study revealed that 93% of parents believe that technological gadgets have positive effects on children. 92% of parents responded that during covid-19 technology was used at the extreme level. Whereas 88% of parents believe that excessive use of technological gadgets can be harmful to children. The study recommends that parents need to educate and supervise their children’s activities and limit their access to technological gadgets to reduce its negative effects.
Keywords: Children, Technological Gadgets, Positive Effects, Negative Effects, Parenting.

Circumstances Tailing off Quality of Teaching English as a Foreign Language at Secondary Schools Level in Pakistan

The study aimed to find out the circumstances declining the input quality of teaching English as foreign language (TEFL) at secondary level. It was a survey of secondary schools in Sindh province. The study comprised of 112 high school teachers, teaching English at secondary level in public sector secondary schools. The data was collected through a five point Likert Type questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, in terms of percentages and mean scores were used. The results revealed appointment of non specialized teachers, utilization of science teachers to teach English, missing co-curricular activities and teaching aids, use of traditional grammar translation method, writing composition on black boards, homework to memorize by rotting, of refresher courses, short use of English for communication, over burdened teachers and over crowded classes were some issues found that tailed off the quality of teaching. The study recommends appointment of English subject specialists, arrangements of workshops for motivation of teachers and teaching methodologies, arrangement of co-curricular activities to enhance the speaking, listens, writing skills, encouraging creativity and writing skill in students, proper time to teachers for preparation of lessons, avoid over burden and over populated classes.
Keywords: English Language, Quality, TEFL, Secondary Education.

Intimacy versus Isolation: Environmental Forces in Stephen Crane’s Maggie: A Girl of the Streets

This study deals with environmental forces that create intimacy and isolation of the protagonist Maggie in Stephen Crane’s Maggie: A Girl of the streets (1893). Maggie feels herself as worthless and unneeded because she could not intimate herself with family and social surroundings. The analysis shows the strong effects of two different environments; environment in the Maggie’s family and environment in social surroundings. These external factors disorganized the character of Maggie which is described as flower in the mud. Furthermore, the study highlights the strong environmental forces of Maggie’s family and to understand the development of her character through the theory of dream as family and environment forces her to be a dreamer. She tries her best to bring changes in the received status which leads her to isolation due to her rebellious nature. The innocent girl, Maggie, changed into prostitute because of strong environmental forces. Her family’s environment, dreadful lover, financial status, imposed social norms and her intimacy and isolation all drive her into prostitution and the ambiguous death by drowning, which may be a suicide or murder is based on the strong environmental forces. The results show that think over the end before involvement in an activity as sin is like a credit card, enjoy now and pay later. Be wise!
Keywords: Intimacy, Isolation, Environment, Forces, Dream.

Assessing the Effects of Hepatitis C on Patients and their Families: A Study of Southern Punjab, Pakistan

Virus Hepatitis-c remains as a challenge for public health providers worldwide. Care and treatment of infected people with hepatitis-c have been identified as a key to improvement required on the burden and social cost related to the disease. This study was designed to explore the lifestyle of effected hepatitis C patients and their families to explore the socio-economic effects of Hepatitis C on patients and their families and also to identify the socio-economic barriers of health care facilities of Hepatitis C patients. This study was conducted in Multan, Bahawalpur and Muzaffargarh for the purpose of data collection. The sample of 445 individuals was selected by using the multistage sampling technique. For the purpose of data collection, an interview schedule was used. There was a strong association between the economic statuses of patient irregulates in checkups, nutritional needs, medicines, fees, lack of fulfillment household needs, unemployment due to patient care, short of time for economic activities. The patient families belong to poor economic status were satisfied with the government facilities and policies regarding services and treatment provided to patients. This study suggests that there is need to launch a proper vaccination program to eradicate the chronic disease.
Keywords: Hepatitis-C, Income Level, Disease Burden, Social & Psychological Effect.

China’s Belt and Road Initiative Creating Win-Win Scenarios: A Case Study of Chinese Investments in Africa and Pakistan

China has embarked upon its ambitious plan of the BRI in 2013, which is a trillion plus dollars’ worth program, ever since it got into the early stages of launch of some of its projects in different countries it has been met with a divided global opinion. Some in the West term it as a means of debt trap diplomacy while others term it as a game changer for developing countries. While the Chinese government describes the BRI as a program directed at mutual gains for partner countries and a “win-win” for all BRI partners. The current study attempts at investigating the true nature of outcomes of the BRI using a case study approach of studying the impact of Chinese investments in African countries and in Pakistan dwelling upon the transitive property of international trade theory. The results of the current study highlight that, indeed Chinese investments in African countries as well as in Pakistan have sparked heightened trade between the two countries, thus providing evidences for the BRI being true to its official goals of creating “win-win” scenarios for partner countries.
Keywords: BRI, Chinese Investment in African Countries, Chinese Investment in Pakistan, CPEC, Trade between Pakistan and African countries, BRI win-win Scenario.

The Influence of Marketing Mix on the Student’s Choice of University in Pakistan

In 2021, there is tough competition going on in the world among various sectors and educational sector is not an exception. Keeping in view this factors, the authors of this research decided to conduct a research on “The Influence of Marketing Mix on the Student’s Choice of University”. There are three-fold research objectives, one is to understand the role of marketing mix 7 P’s namely product, price, place, promotion, people, physical evidence and process on the student’s attitude and willingness to apply. Secondly to explore that what are the marketing tactics which the universities are currently using to attract the students from the literature. Thirdly, to provide clear understanding to universities that how they can effectively blend the marketing mix to attract students and improve their services. The present research is based on finding the impact of marketing mix on Pakistani student`s selection of a university. The research instrument is the structured questionnaire for collecting primary data from students of Pakistan. There are many factors that students pay attention to while applying in a university. The researchers tried to investigate and find out the strength of these marketing mix 7 Ps. A 5 point Likert scale was used to collect primary data. The researchers selected public and private sector universities of Islamabad as students from all over Pakistan apply here. The researcher distributed a total of 250 self-administered questionnaires out of which 180 were found complete is all respects having a response rate of 70% which is quite high. Among 180 respondents 95 (approximately 53%) were males and 85 (47%) were females. As the data has been collected from the university students which are at the different stages of their educational level, 60 (33%) of them were enrolled in the graduation, 65 (36%) Master, 40 (22%) were in MS/MPhil and the remaining 15 (9%) were PhD scholars. The major findings of the present research show that there is a high impact of marketing mix on the decisions of students applying in a higher educational institution. In nutshell, the top management of universities can use the findings of this research to strengthen their marketing strategies in order to increase the enrollment and quality of their various educational programs. Furthermore, higher educational institutions can also have in-depth understanding of their prospective students and this will also help them design better marketing strategies to compete in the market.
Keywords: Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Physical Evidence, Process, University.



Impact of Gender on Achievement in Learning English as Foreign Language by Pakistani University Students

The current study investigated the impact of gender on the attainment of learning English as FL by Pakistani university students. 100 (50 males and 50 females) English as non-major subject students were chosen as participants for this study. The data were analyzed quantitatively using SPSS, descriptive data, paired t-test, and effect size were measured to make essential inferences for the result. The result reflected that there was a significant relationship between gender and EFL learning. The data collected for this study provides shreds of evidence that girls produced significantly better in learning English as FL as compared to the boys. The findings of this study implicate that females outperform their male counterparts in learning English as a foreign language. The article concludes by suggesting important implications for the education policymakers and the EFL teachers.
Keywords: Gender, EFL, University Students, Language Attainment.

Foucault’s Concept of Discourse in Society: Muslim Subjectification and Negative Imaging by Intellectual Media

This article aims at exploring the significance of Foucault’s notion of functioning of discourse in the present age of cross-cultural communication. Foucault considers discourse as a set of systematic statements with a topic at its core, which acts as tool to exercise power on individuals or on society. Power according to Foucault is to position the very outlook of individuals or of societies towards social reality. Thus discourse acts as a tool to bring change in the way of thinking towards social realities. This article took the post 9/11 anti-Muslim discourse of international media, intellectuals and government as a baseline to show how this discourse in international media functioned as a tool to position the way people now negatively look at Muslims and Islam around the world. Maltreatment of Muslims around the world has also been discussed to show how significant is Foucault’s notion of functioning of discourse in the present age of cross-cultural communication. It is concluded that as we are living in the era of global village; a single negative discourse can lead to massive malfunctioning in the world. This article will be helpful for the readers of Foucault in understanding his theory; it will be helpful for the general public to understand how they are subjectified and their perspectives about social realities are positioned through discourse in the current age of cross-cultural communication, it will also be helpful for the researcher of this field in discourse analysis.
Keywords: Discourse, Power, Subjects, Exclusion, Positioning, Social Realities, Anti-Muslim Discourse, International Media, Hate-Crimes.

Cultural Stress among Periphery Students at a Metropolitan University: A Case Study of Muzaffarabad (Azad Jammu and Kashmir)

Muzaffarabad is the Metropolitan city of Azad Jammu Kashmir. Besides other urban facilities, the city is equipped with current educational facilities. A local university offers a wide range of subjects and cater students from all over the province. A large portion of the student body comprises of students from the peripheries. Some of these students are reported to have the first life experience to study in the capital city. Additionally, the students have to face the cultural shock, undergoing the uniqueness of studying in a comparatively developed capital, which effects their academic performance. The focus of the present study is the representative sample of undergraduate and postgraduate students from periphery at a university in Muzaffarabad city, who took survey to examine their perceptions of cultural stress and the relationships between cultural stress and social connectedness, mental health, and lifestyle balance. The results reveal that many students from periphery experience cultural stress, particularly, regarding family along with an acquainted life mode. Problems of discernment, anxiety and outlooks of dearth of safety, were in a smaller amount normally stated as traumatic. The cultural stress is allied to students’ communicative abilities within different cultural environment and the assessment of academic development. Cultural stress is negatively connected to social link and equilibrium of lifestyle, but positively associated to enhancing despair and unease. The findings suggest arrangements for programs at universities and home town mentoring and guiding centers, intended to assist periphery students to regulate to different cultural sites.
Keywords: Cultural Stress, Periphery, Metropolitan City, University.
SUMAIRA SHAFIQ and ZAINAB AKRAM 106-117 Download(12)
Spatiotemporal Changes in Marine Turtle Nesting Grounds Through Remote Sensing techniques: Sandspit, Kakapir, Karachi (2009-2013)
Turtles are exclusive creatures of the world, having particularly eco-friendly manners plus physical characteristics. The main nest seashores are widening in world; around 62 countries based on turtles nest shores. Karachi coast is renowned for the turtles nesting and also for their habitat ecology. The core objective of this study is based on high resolution satellite imageries of turtles nesting grounds of different years at study area. In this study spatio-temporal change of turtle nesting pits are observed in 2009-2013 respectively. Geoinformatic technique helps to classify the facts and figures about this Study remote sensing and spatiotemporal GIS used to find out geographic sort and habitat changes. Further the interview and questionnaire has been collected from the study area. Findings shown the turtles dug their pits from the month of September till March during the period of low tides. No pits are observed in the month of high tides i.e. April, May, June, July and August. Number of pits are higher in 2012 and 2013, 644 and 652 respectively. It has been observed that anthropogenic activities are main reason of declining turtle population as marine pollution like damping of nuclear waste, disposal of sanitation and most of the time polythene bags are engulfed by the turtles. Encroachments and recreational activities are hindering the nesting places. Finally based on results of this study, it is suggested that, increasing and enhancing awareness about the protection and conservation of this imperative environmental resource.
Keywords: Spatio-temporal, Nesting Grounds, Change, Remote Sensing.

Teachers’ Empowerment in Workplace and Its Implications

It is believed that lack of teachers’ empowerment in job related activities cause de-motivation which leads to poor performance in attaining goals at individual and organizational level. On the other hand, empowerment in doing assigned tasks increases teachers’ responsibilities; however, it enables them to perform their duties with more commitment and dedication. Consequently, individuals with more sense of responsibilities can contribute towards the achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of conducting this study was to explore teachers’ perceptions and beliefs about their experiences of empowerment in job related tasks in one of the teacher educational institutions in Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. Case study method was adopted to explore perceptions and rich experiences of the respondents selected through purposive sampling technique based on their length of service. The data were gathered from research participants through semi-structured interviews followed by some probing questions for clarity. Furthermore, data were analyzed by coding, categorizing similar and dissimilar chunks of information and recurring phrases under certain themes and were interpreted them into sensible ideas. Analyzing data generated some prominent themes such as the role of principal and organizational culture in empowering teachers at work place. Finally, most of the findings indicate that teachers are less empowered in their job related activities and they are not provided a conducive working environment. Moreover, it was revealed that lack of teachers’ empowerment and poor working environment negatively affect performance of individuals and organization. The study recommends that school leadership should empower teachers and create a conducive working environment to enhance the performance of teachers and school.
Keywords: Empowerment, Motivation, Implications, Performance, Organizational Culture.

Sociological Analysis of the Training needs for the Primary and High School with Head Teachers in Public Schools at taluka Kotri District Jamshoro

The key objective of this study was to assess the training needs for the primary and high school head teachers in taluka Kotri District Jamshoro. As, in the context of developing countries, it is recognized that quality education in schools depends on numerous factors, such as the accessibility of teaching materials, number of qualified teachers, and the excellence of school management and administration. In Pakistan there is a lack of good management practices at the school level, therefore, schools are not functioning properly, and all other problems are attached to the bad management practices at the school level. This was a descriptive research, Likert scale 5.0 was applied to collect the data. A total of 32 samples were selected purposively from the six primary and high schools. The population of the study was 40. The overall findings of the study showed that primary and high school head teachers at taluka Kotri were very weak in school management and they are in dire need of different managerial skills. The outcome of the two-tailed one sample t-test was significantly based on an alpha value of 0.05, t (31) = 3.128, p < .004, signifying that the null hypothesis is rejected. This result suggests that training needs which included (Financial Management Skills (FMS), Teachers’ Management Skills (TMS), Communication Management Skills (CMS)) was produced by a distribution with a mean not equal to 3. Management skills are very important for quality education. To improve the quality of public schools and get the attention of the general public, management training should be given to the primary and high school head teachers on regular basis.
Keywords: Sociological Analysis, Primary School, High School, Head Teachers, Training Needs, Financial Management Skills, Teachers’ Management Skills, Communication Management Skills, Social Organizations.

Dynamic Impact of Urbanization and Socioeconomic Conditions on Carbon Emissions in Pakistan: An Application of STIRPAT and Environmental Kuznets Curve

Pollution is hurting human lives severely all over the globe since last few decades. It is entirely associated with socioeconomic conditions of a country and require serious efforts to impede environmental apprehensions. The present study investigates the impact of urbanization, economic growth, electric power consumption, socioeconomic condition and globalization on carbon dioxide emissions using time series data for Pakistan. The most flexible ecological framework STIRPAT is used to test the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for the period 1980-2019. The empirical findings of an Auto-regressive distributed lag approach reveal that urbanization, economic growth, socioeconomic condition and globalization increases carbon emissions in the long run. The study also found insignificant linkage of electric power consumption with carbon emissions. Urbanization and economic growth are significant contributors of carbon emissions in the short run. An inverted U shaped environmental Kuznets curve exists between urbanization and carbon emissions in short run as well as in the long run with a turning point at 33.90%. The error correction model evaluates the period of 1.02 years for diverging the short term disturbance to long term equilibrium. The study concludes that government must be vigilant towards unorganized urban sprawl and ensure sustainable socioeconomic conditions to curb the air pollution. The policy makers are suggested to devise environment friendly policies particularly related to renewable energy use for environmental protection.
Keywords: ARDL, Economic Growth, Electric Power Consumption, Globalization, Urban Sprawl.

Daydreaming with Reference to Different Stages of Age: A Qualitative Study

The purpose of this research was to explore the experiences of daydreaming with reference to different stages of age. Ten Semi-structured interviews were conducted with adults (M, 41; SD, 3.41) with equal representation of men (n =5) and women (n = 5). After transcribing the data, thematic analysis (TA), which is a qualitative approach, was used for analysing the data. The analysis highlighted some master themes that were organized to make a model of the content of daydreaming. The highlighted themes include four master themes fanciful (childhood), amusing (Adolescent), relationship-oriented (young Adults), and practical (middle adults). Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
Keywords: Daydreaming, Fanciful, Amusing, Relationship Oriented, Thematic Analysis.

Translation and Adaptation of European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire for Urdu Speaking School Going Adolescents in Pakistan

The aim of the current study was to translate and adapt 16 item shorter version of European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire for Urdu speaking school going adolescents in Pakistan to measure their health literacy levels in order to help identify specific indicators that are needed to be addressed to improve their health. The current study consisted of two phases; first was the translation of the instrument into Urdu language through standard procedure followed by second phase of establishing psychometric properties through confirmatory factor analysis. With the help of 625 school going adolescent participants, recruited via convenient sampling, a cross sectional survey was conducted. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to establish structural validity. It successfully retrieved three factors solution in 16 items. The obtained data satisfactorily confirmed the three-dimensional model. Cronbach alpha values (α=.67) showed high level of internal consistency. Thus, confirming the validity and reliability of the translated Urdu version. The translated Urdu version can be utilized in future researches to measure the levels of health literacy among school going adolescents.
Keywords: Health Literacy, Adolescents, Urdu, Hls-Eu-Q16, Pakistan, Translation.
MUNEEB AHMED TOOR and BUSHRA BIBI 174-180 Download(13)

Representation of Patriotic Ideology through Linguistic Modality in English Textbooks

This study is an exploration regarding construction of patriotic ideology within elementary level grade six, seven and eight classes‟ English language textbooks designed by Punjab textbook board (PTB), Pakistan. Precise use of linguistic modality acquires significant appearance, noticed in investigations relating to production of patriotic values, ideological viewpoints embedded within textual understanding of the said textbooks. The data from selected textbooks has been analyzed to highlight specific usage of modality which develops nationalism. The exploration of selected textbooks through CDA viewpoint with additions of Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) is a distinct dimension of inquiry within academic text. Furthermore, examination of the said textbooks also reveals philosophical understanding and obvious inclination towards patriotism which also obtains significance. Fairclough‟s CDA model and Halliday‟s SFG have been implemented as analytical model of the research. The study has disclosed the clear instances of implicitly assembled national culture related to patriotism through various linguistic modality indicators reflected on different text features regarding patriotic ideology. Findings of the research in hand reveals that, textbooks especially language books are not only an authentic source of education but also a reliable source of cultural growth. It was also found that Patriotic values have been intentionally described in English textbooks for elementary classes published by Punjab Textbook Board Lahore, Pakistan, so, this research would be helpful for course designers, educationists, teachers and young learners at elementary level.
Keywords: CDA, Social Representation, Patriotism, Textbooks.

Gender and Age Difference in Attitude of Secondary School Students towards Physical Activities and Barriers. A Study from Pakistan.

This study aims to examine the student's attitudes and barriers to physical activities. This study focused on secondary school level students in Pakistan. A survey method was applied in this research. The research's targeted population was students studying in grades 9th and 10th in government schools in Punjab province. The sample was drawn from four districts Lahore, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, and Rajanpur of Punjab. Eighty (46 boys and 55 girls) public schools were randomly selected from these four districts. Four hundred fourteen students (38.6% girls and 61.4%) were taken as a sample from class 9th and 10th. In this study, an adapted questionnaire, "Students attitude towards physical activities and barriers," was used. Demographics information was presented using descriptive analysis (frequency and percentage). Gender and age group differences were analyzed through independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results of this study revealed that male students showed a more positive attitude towards physical activities than female students. There was no significant difference found in the different age groups. Students (both male and female) showed a negative attitude towards barriers to physical activities at schools. Female’s students were facing more barriers to physical activities.
Keywords: Students Attitude, Physical Education Barriers, Physical Activities, Secondary School, Pakistan.

Survival of Traditional Gujrat Pottery in the Age of Consumerism

The present study is an ethnographic survey of traditional pottery production and its struggle for survival in the district of Gujrat (Punjab, Pakistan). Gujrat has an old tradition of manufacturing red terracotta pottery which is embedded in the history of the place. It is either hand shaped or wheel turned and reveals the creativity and skill of the hereditary potters. Viewing the evolution of the pottery of Gujrat chronologically, this study examines its rise and fall and explores the reasons of its survival reflecting its traditional culture to date, which is a testament to the endeavors of these artisans and shows their dedication and flexibility towards the changing times. They adapted their craft to the use of electric wheel and other equipment and modern glazing techniques without sacrificing its traditional essence. Even today Gujrati pottery is famous in Pakistan however this traditional craft is dying-out because technological innovations are replacing it. Further it was revealing in the study that the descendants of hereditary potters who had left their ancestral occupation are returning. The study recommended that the joint efforts between the academia and craftsmen linkage will prove to be significant effort to raise the interest regarding pottery making among students and elevate appreciation of the handicrafts and the artisans.
Keywords: Clay Pottery, Craft, Gujrati Icons, Survival, Traditional.
TAHMINA ALI 204-214 Download(12)

Cognitive Distortions as Mediator between Negative Experiences and Academic Achievement

This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the mediation role of cognitive distortions on the path of negative experiences to academic achievement. A total of 2213 university students from public sector universities were investigated using the scale of cognitive distortions, the questionnaires of negative experiences and self-reported Grades. Structure Equation Modelling was the main analysis tool to bring results out to the surface. Findings revealed that students’ negative experiences during their university life led to the development of cognitive distortions. Most importantly, ‘Fortune Telling’, ‘Self-Blaming’ and ‘Discounting Positive’ exhibited negative mediation on the path from negative experiences to academic achievement. Contrarily, ‘Mental Filter’, ‘Emotional Reasoning’, ‘All-or-Nothing’, ‘Labeling’, and ‘Mind-Reading’ were proved to act as positive mediators between the two. The developed model can help parents, teachers, psychologists, and sociologists to capture biased thinking patterns and responsible social factors, and help students to suppress negative thinking patterns, which may lead to improve their performance in the examination.
Keywords: Students, Negative Experiences, Academic Achievement, Cognitive Distortions, Mediator, GPA.

An Analysis of the Causes of the Jamaat-i-Islami’s Electoral Setback in the 2018 General Elections of Pakistan in the Light of its Islamist Agenda

Jamaat-i-Islami Pakistan performed well when it appeared in electoral alliances such as PNA, IJI, and MMA before the 2018 general elections. Being part of the MMA, the Jamaat could not perform well in the 2018 general elections. This study aimed at probing into Jamaat’s pre-poll strategy flaws in terms of reading the voting behavior of the religious vote bank and other factors before the 2018 general elections. ‘Heterogeneous purposive sampling’ technique was applied to cover all possible diverse opinions on the subject. Besides the other causes, just after successfully remaining in power as a coalition partner of the ruling Party PTI in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provincial government (2013-2018), the Joining of the traditionalist MMA alliance in 2018 just before the general elections severely disappointed the Jamaat’s sympathetic Islamist followers. The JUI and the Jamaat, being the main parties in the MMA, could not create coordination before the 2018 general elections against the PTI’s wave of populism. The emergence of the Tahreek Labbaik Pakistan Party in Punjab and Sindh divided the religious vote bank. In Sind, especially in Karachi, the PTI appeared as an emerging contender to challenge the PPPP and the MQM. In contrast to its previous aggressive mode to acquire the state power, the Jamaat has been addressing the common man problems to enhance the support-base and to attract the floating Islamist voters. Besides these efforts, the Jamaat lost its sympathetic vote bank to PTI due to its decision to join the MMA just before the 2018 general elections.
Keywords: Electoral Alliances, Voting Behavior, Coalition Partner, Islamist Followers, Floating Islamist Voters, Common Man Problems, Sympathetic Vote Bank.
SHAHZADA GULFAM 231-240 Download(26)

Analyzing the Functions of Metaphors in the News Headlines

The purpose of the current study is to analyze the metaphors used in CNN headlines while reporting the situations of crises and political unrest in Pakistan during 2010 and 2011. As CNN is a popular news channel available not only through electronic media but also through social media and internet, the news stories reach millions of audiences every day. Metaphors are commonly used devices in the headlines. Metaphors express something as something else. The study uses Lakoff and Johnson (1980) theory of conceptual metaphors and classifies the metaphors into structural, orientational and ontological metaphors. The study finds that all these categories of metaphors are present in CNN headlines where they function to draw attention towards a news story, exaggerate an event or present an event or a person as something else in order to make the headline attractive enough. The study also finds that the news stories related with Pakistan use metaphors full of loaded and negative words whereas the news stories related with United Stated use the metaphors to highlight positive attributes.
Keywords: Metaphors, Functions, CNN. Headlines, Loaded Words, Ontological Metaphor.
RABIAH RUSTAM and MIAN SHAH BACHA 241-247 Download(18)
An Unjustified Justification in Honor Killing. Uncovering Reality and Assessment in the Context of Pakistan.
Pakistan is termed as an unsafe place for women according to an international survey, a shocking yet an eye-opening for many, and a thought-provoking observation. Felonies in the shape of honor killing and violence against women, including sexual abuse, physical assaults and harassment are a few disturbing offences, and surprisingly the incidents recorded or taken notice of, are just a drop in the ocean because they are prevalent in our society. In this paper the issues, associated with the patriarchal norms of our society, including violence against women and the fundamental resources of religion and traditions are evaluated so that a proper clarification, for those who commit crimes against women, can be provided considering the true spirit of Islam and to call a spade a spade while considering all the immoral behaviors as assaults committed against women.
Keywords: Honor Killing, Assaults, Societal Norms, Zina, Fatwa, Islam, Fundamental Rights.
Mobile English Learning: Effectiveness of Sentence Master (A Mobile App) in English Syntactic Skill Learning
This study has explored the effectiveness of a mobile app in the development of students’ English syntactic skill. Participants were sixty-four (64) Grade-XI students of Government Higher Secondary School, Shaidu (district Nowshera, KP, Pakistan) selected through simple random sampling technique. These participants were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. During the training period, experimental group used the mobile app (i.e. Sentence Master) for 40 minutes every day during twenty-four (24) school days via a mobile device to practice targeted sentences, whereas, during these days the control group used the traditional method i.e. paper-based instruction to practice the target sentences. After twenty-four (24) days experimental time, a post-test was administered to both groups. Pre- and post-tests scores were used to assess the participants’ syntactic skill development levels before and after training. The experimental group performed significantly better as compared to control group. Thus, it is recommended that mobile app e.g. Sentence Master in particular and other mobile apps in general may be used to develop learners’ syntactic skill in English.
Keywords: MALL, Mobile Apps, English language, English Syntax, Secondary Education.
IMDAD ULLAH 255-262 Download(10)

Students’ Perception about Mathematics Teaching Practices at Secondary Level

Current study attempted to investigate existing situation of teaching mathematics in comparison to best practices as per Pakistan’s national curriculum at secondary level. For this purpose, 34 secondary school students of public and private institutions were selected to fill up specially designed questionnaire with a return rate of 75%. The questionnaire was constituted of 35 items. The reliability coefficient was found to be 0.90, which was considered quite reliable. Sample was selected randomly, and it was comprised of 234 students (public 110= private = 124). Whereas 10 mathematics teachers of the sample students were interviewed to validate students’ perception and comparing their descriptions with strategies provided in national curriculum. The results show that students were satisfied and agreed upon whatever their teachers are doing for teaching mathematics. Study revealed gender-wise significant difference for mathematic teachers’ lecture preparation and school wise difference for classroom instructions. The study also discovered significant positive relationships among various sub-factors of the scale used. Teachers’ descriptions verified students’ positive perceptions and also indicated that they were following best practices as per national curriculum of mathematics of Pakistan.
Keywords: Perception, Mathematics, Teaching Practices, Secondary Level, National Curriculum.

Role of Islamic Parties in Movement of Pakistan

In the history of Indo-Pak sub-continent, the status of ulemas has been as an effective group, and the weight age of propagation of Islam in the sub- continent also goes to these sufies and ulemas. Different religious political parties played their role during the Pakistan movement. Some religious parties opposed the Pakistan movement while others participated enthusiastically in this movement. The practical shape to come out of the dominancy and cruelty of non- believers, for the freedom and refinement of Muslims and to defend and secure the religious and Sharia is that the Muslim of India should strongly oppose united India and All India federation. They should strongly forward the demand of Pakistan or division of India that is presented by All India Muslim league on behalf of Muslim nation and to achieve it. Consequently, the results of the policy, within 150years, indicate that the nation who used to be the owner of the country treasure now had become completely dependent upon others. They have been deprived of the means of economy one by one and presently its 90 percent population is suffering from economic slavery of non-Muslim capitalists.
Keywords: Indo-Pak Sub Continent, JamiatUlema-e-Hind,_Jamaat-e-Islami ,Jamiat Ulema-e- Islam, Muslim League.

Preparedness of Prospective Teachers to Deal Students’ Learning Diversities in Classrooms

A common Pakistani urban classroom is plural and diverse in terms of cultural, linguistic and ethnic variances. These differences consequently promote diversities in students’ learning practices and styles. The present study, fundamentally, is an appraisal of student teachers regarding their preparation to deal learning diversities in classrooms. 500 prospective teachers selected from 5 different teacher education institutions through multiphase random sampling technique participated in the study. A self-reported questionnaire developed on 5 point Likert scale was used to collect the data. The instrument focused on probing the prevalence of required teaching competencies in five major areas including effective instructions, classroom management and communication, assessment and evaluation, lifelong learning and professional competencies in a more general sense. Findings demonstrate that the prospective teachers have limited competencies of dealing learning diversities in classroom and a revision in teacher education programs is required to equip them with adequate skills.
Keywords: Learning Styles, Competencies, Classrooms, Lifelong learning, Evaluation.

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