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Academy of IRMBR Volume  8, September, 2020
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Socio-Economic Impediments for Integration of Muslim Immigrants in Europe

When we talk about Muslims in Europe, We are discussing a specific community. This community is living in Europe for centuries and has a decisive role in the continent which is self-evident. Through the Analysis of different natures of social science, we come to know that being ‘Muslim’ is not only a classification of analysis but also a social, political and religious practice. If same principle is implemented in the case of immigrants, the huge transformation of the public representation made the Europe a place where not only Muslims but all communities have empathy of their origin and religion. Some self-identifications react directly to hegemonic other-identifications. This is most obviously the case where other-identifications are experienced as powerfully stigmatizing. Although it is proved from different studies in Europe that Muslims have not any specific challenge. The same has been presented in the Pew Global Attitudes Project poll of 2006, where most of the Muslims admitted that besides little signs of animosity on some places, majority of Europeans are not hostile towards their religion and place of origin. Most of the Muslims even confessed that beside terrorist incidents occurred in the continent for which Muslims were held responsible; they still have not had any personal bad experience attributable to their race, ethnicity, or religion. Being Muslim in Europe is not a case of stigmatization which is felt in daily life rather discourse leads to some reactively assert a Muslim identification. While Americans are protesting against racism and Europe may follow, the case under study will reveal us about the real challenges being faced by the Muslims in Europe.
Keywords: Migration, Religion, Multicultural, Economies, Refugees.

College Teachers’ Self-Efficacy and Occupational Stress: A Correlational Study

The present research was carried out to identify the relationship between self-efficacy and occupational stress among college teachers. The research design was correlational and quantitative. Universe of the present study included teachers of Islamabad Model Colleges and tool for data collection was questionnaire. Stratified sampling technique was used for the sample selection. Sample size was 256 teachers. The data were analyzed through SPSS and presented through tabular form with uni-variate, mean, Standard Deviation and spearman rank correlation. The findings depict that teachers faced multiple problems in college that cause occupational stress in them. The main results were low self-efficacy of college teachers, due to colleagues behaviors, leaves rules, new technology, workload, and extra work/additional work affect their performance in class made teachers stressful. They love their profession as they consider it to be noble profession but due to occupational stress teachers do not put their effort as much as they want, now days for government college teachers it is highly job creating profession for teachers.
Keywords: Lecturers, Self-Efficacy, Stress, Government College, Pakistan.
SANIA AKBAR and FOUZIA AJMAL 9-17 Download(58)

US Initiatives to Contain Chinas Rise Post 2008s Economic Crisis

In contemporary times, a Great Power Competition is being witnessed between the United States and China. On one hand, the United States is trying to sustain the current US-led liberal world order and maintain its prestigious status of the sole Superpower; on the other hand, China is trying to devise a more „just and balanced‟ world order in which it sees itself playing a dominant role. In order to maintain its hegemony, the United States has adopted successive comprehensive strategies to effectively curb China‟s rise. This paper discusses in-depth the adopted successive policies and strategies by the United States to contain China‟s rise and analyzes the efficacy of these promulgated policies.
Keywords: US-China Relations, American Grand Strategy, Great Power Competition, Indo-Pacific Region, Pivot to Asia.

Distance Learning, Pedagogical Practices and Communication Problems: A Learner-Centered Approach

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has brought changes and opened new horizons in every field of human life. This development has altered ways of learning and pedagogy generally all over the world but particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. Due to closure of institutions, distance learning (online classes system) has been emerged as an alternate that includes revised content, assessment procedures, teaching approaches, novel learning experiences, modern ways of communication and interactional patterns. The study is an effort to examine the role of technology in effectiveness or ineffectiveness of communication in online classroom, students and teachers participation in online class communication and communication issues that are faced by the students and teachers in distance learning classroom. The current study is based on qualitative descriptive case study approach. The sample for the study was purposively selected 20 students and 20 teachers from the Department of English Language and Literature, UOL, Lahore, Department of Linguistics and Communications, UMT Lahore, Department of Zoology, Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore and Department of Humanities, COMSATS Lahore. Equal number of students and teachers were chosen as respondents from each of the aforesaid universities. This study is embedded in the communication interpersonal theory of Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM) by W. Barnett Pearce & Vernon Cronen (1980). The interviews data was categorized and organized into content themes for interpretation. This study provided an insight into students’ experiences and teachers’ perspectives while they communicate during online classes. The current study findings provided information about role of technology in effectiveness or ineffectiveness of communication in distance learning settings, reduction in student-teacher and student-student communication in online classes and problems that teachers and students faced when they communicate in online class.
Keywords: Distance Learning, Online Class, Pedagogical Practices, Communication Problems, Learner-Centered Approach, Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM).

Moderating Role of Positive Core Self- Evaluation in Relationship between Opinion Leaders and Product Involvement

The chief goal of this research was to examine moderating role of positive core self- evaluation in relationship between opinion leaders and product involvement. The sample of the current research consisted of (N=400) adults, who were selected through convenient sampling form Sargodha District. Impact of gender was also measured in relation to the variables of present study. Demographics demonstrated significant impact on all variables of present study. Opinion leaders, positive core self-evaluation and product involvement were operationalized through Opinion Leaders Scale (Flynn et al.,1994), Positive Core Self-Evaluation Scale the subscale of Core Self-Evaluation Scale (Judge et al., 2003) and Product Involvement Scale (Zaichkowsky, 1985). All scales were translated in present study by following standardized procedure developed by Brislin (1980). Before assessing the relationship among the variables of present study, the psychometrics of all variables were determined. Correlation matrix demonstrated significant correlations among all variables in expected directions. Proposed model of moderation was tested through SPSS Hierarchical regression analysis. Results showed desired moderating effect of positive core self-evaluation in relationship between opinion leaders and product involvement. Implications of the study and limitations were discussed. The recommendations for further research were also suggested.
Keywords: Convenient Sampling, Moderation Analysis, Consumer Behaviour, Marketing, Self-Congruity.

Relationship Between Ethical Climate and Organizational Commitment in Higher Education Institutions of Pakistan

Organization’s Ethical Climate is the topmost behavioral construct which has a positive impact on all the workings of an organization. It involves the decision-making practices of an organization which are characterized by the reactions of its members. In the same way, organizational commitment is another behavioral construct which is characterized by the emotional attachment of the employees with their organization. Commitment among the employees has far reaching benefits for the organization as well as employees. Research shows that organizational commitment and ethical climate correlated. The current research was aimed at finding the relationship between Ethical Climate and Organizational Commitment in Higher Education Institutions of Pakistan. This study was descriptive in nature and the researcher has adopted survey technique for data collection. Descriptive statistics, mean, SD, correlation, and linear regression were calculated using SPSS version 20.0. Findings of the study revealed the significant relationship between Ethical Climate and Organizational Commitment in Higher Education Institutions of Pakistan. The researcher recommended to enforce promotion of religious teachings, academic morality, ethical culture, resolution of conflicts through ethical manner among faculty members of private sector universities.
Keywords: Ethical Climate, Organizational Commitment, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs).

Examining Work Outcome and Organizational Justice: The Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics

This study attempts to examine the relationship between Organizational justice (OJ) and dimensions of job-outcome under the moderating role of Islamic Work Ethics (IWE) in relatively ignored Muslim population context of Pakistan. Using quantitative techniques, data from 210 employees of the two most employable sectors viz-a-viz banking and higher-education institutions were collected and then analyzed using moderation regression analysis. The study finds that IWE serve as a moderator in the relationship of OJ and selected work outcomes. Individuals with high IWE exhibit high levels of Work engagement (WE) as determined by high Procedural (PJ) and Distributive justice (DJ) than those with low IWE. While only a partial moderation by IWE is found in case of OJ and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). Employees with high IWE will have greater tendency to display WE and OCB, whereas low IWE employees may be tempted toward socio-political means for job-outcomes. Theoretically, this research contributes by envisaging a new role of IWE in the relationship of WE and OCB with OJ. The study concludes with a note on implications and limitations and future directions.
Keywords: Organizational Justice, Procedural and Distributive Justice, OCB, Work Engagement, Islamic Work Environment.

Political Influences of Social Media on Public in Punjab, Pakistan

World is erratically switching into new type of media, that is social media, in this technical age of the world and advancement in technology every field of life is becoming digital, social media is cheap and easy access system of media that is having the different attributes and features to apprehensible its users, in this modern world different organizations used it to acquire their aims like as trade, business, products advertisement, culture promotion, educational, medical and health awareness so on. Research objectives were to identify the social media is most powerful tool to change political behavior among all media forms and political parties got fame due to social media, social media change the political behavior of political parties and social media is a tool to raise their voice beside their supportive political party, Study Emphasize the effects of social media on political affiliation in Punjab Pakistan, survey based study was carried, population of study area was all districts of Punjab and none-random sampling techniques was used, 927 participants was selected without gender discrimination from Punjab, five point likert scale tool used to data collection and Descriptive Analyses was used to interpretation and analysis of collected data. The findings of the study indicates that social media became the essential tool for political parties to attract the public, public also appreciable switched to use this new media in politics , political parties efficiently delivered their manifesto, projects and attractive planning to serve the public.
Keywords: Social Media, Political Parties, Public Affiliation, DAM, China Pakistan Economic Corridor.
Understanding the Issues and Problems of Agriculture in Pakistan (A Case Study of District Bahawalpur)
Agriculture remained the backbone of Pakistan since its inception. Without any doubt the sector was under different circumstances that is why we still faced lot of issues to strengthen the livelihood activities. The present research article derived from PhD research work, particularly some of the issues faced by the farmers in Bahawalpur district discussed to make the reader understood about the actual situation and the ground based issues that is why we need emergency reforms in agriculture sector to sustain the growth and nutrition of the country’s population. In the article two tools for the data collection discussed e.g. in-depth interviews and the FGDs with the stakeholders. The study concluded that, due to negligence of farmers and lack of available and standard facilities from different government departments the dream of prosperous and green Pakistan remained a dream under different circumstances. Farmers wanted to change but due to poor economic condition and other external influences they living very hand to mouth lives and all the time remained under debt. If government wanted to provide relief to the farmers she must have to maintain the watercourses as well as electricity services on standard rates. Otherwise the urbanization will increase the burden on cities which leads toward the decrease in agricultural products and increase in imports for the survival of masses.
Keywords: Issues, Problems, Agriculture, Water.

US Endgame in Afghanistan: Impacts on Terrorism in Pakistan

After 9/11 Pakistan decided to be a non-NATO ally of the US coalition in the war against terrorism. Due to 2400 KM long shared border with Afghanistan, the majority of the Al Qaeda members and other terrorists continue to enter Pakistan in the form of refugees and involve in terrorist activities. Objectives: To investigate the facts that how the US war on terror in Afghanistan affects the law and order situation in Pakistan. This study will also make a comparison on terrorist attacks in Pakistan, when US forces were fighting and when the US announced to withdraw from Afghanistan. Method: This research adopts a mixed-method technique. Researchers collect quantitative data through content analysis from four leading national newspapers of Pakistan i.e. Two Urdu and Two English dailies. While qualitative data is collected through in-depth interviews from the most relevant intellectuals and experts on the subject. Results: Results show that there is a significant relationship between terrorism in Pakistan with the presence of US forces in Afghanistan. Conclusion: The researchers conclude that terrorism continue to increase in Pakistan, due to the US forces presence in Afghanistan, and it decreases when the peace dialogue starts with the Taliban in Afghanistan.
Keywords: Security Dilemma, Terrorism, Security, Conflict, War, Stability, Peace Dialogue.

Psychological Effects of Social Media Resulting in Isolation Among Students of Lahore: A Cross-Sectional Study

The present research focuses on the effect of media platforms on more separation of students. Learners to scientific advancement start to be using social media channels e.g Facebook messenger google video Snapchat and many others that have seen many methods of impacting one’s lifestyles. Using such social networks they are violently isolated short tempered ill. The study focuses on the effects of student isolation. The research examines the effects of isolation in students, how isolation changed their lives their behaviors towards people and how the use of social media effected their health in general. To achieve these objectives we conducted quantitative method like questionnaires and surveyor by manipulating preexisting statistical data using computational techniques. In the research 52.2 percent accepted the psychological effects of isolation, Result shows that 57.6 percent people said that they are effected by the use of social media, research says that 27.4 percent says that they will spend their time with friends which shows that people have vast effects of social media excessive use and they want some other activities of healthy activities to get rid of the social media to avoid any further health and mental and other kind of socializing problems.
Keywords: Effects, Psychology, Social, Media, Lahore.

Psychometric Properties of the Urdu Translation of Problem-Solving Style Scale

Problem Solving is an art of identifying a problem, thinking of an ideal solution and then taking the appropriate action thus this skill is one of the necessities of life. Long and Cassidy developed the scale of Problem-Solving Styles initially with five subscales and later added two more dimensions (Cassidy & Long, 1996). Problem Solving Style Questionnaire has originally been developed in English language with 28 items, 4 items in each subscale. Despite the importance of problem-solving skill, it has not been translated into any other language so this study is the first attempt to translate the scale in Urdu Language. Purposive sampling was used to get the sample of 205 Pakistani married couples and the findings showed good reliability of subscales and confirmatory factors. In the evaluation of the instrument, it showed up to be an accurate measure to measure problem solving dimensions.
Keywords: Problem solving, Married couples, Urdu language, Translation.
AMNA AJMAL and SYEDA SHAHIDA BATOOL 135-143 Download(42)

Role of Social Media in Democratization in Pakistan: An Analysis of Political Awareness, Efficacy and Participation in Youth

The emergence of social media has changed the way of political communication. Now it has become very common to participate in online political activities through liking, uploading, commenting and sharing political content as well as following politicians on facebook and twitter. This study aimed to analyze the role of social media in democratization in Pakistan .The primary objective of the study was to explore the consumption patterns of social media in youth for strengthening democratization and to analyze the role of social media in creating political awareness in youth .Moreover, this study observed the role of social media for constructing political efficacy and political participation working under uses and gratification, Media richness and social engagement theories. In order to answer the underlying questions, data of the study was collected through Quantitative (Survey) method. The study concluded that the usage of social media is creating political awareness, builds political efficacy and increasing political participation in youth. In addition, Facebook and twitter are providing information regarding voting and electoral procedures to youth and they are actively participating on social media for sharing political content with their friends and social circle. Furthermore, research findings evidently supported that social media use by youth is strengthening democratization in Pakistan.
Keywords: Social Media, Democratization, Political Awareness, Political Efficacy, Political Participation, Youth.

Impact of Leadership Styles on Knowledge Management Effectiveness: Moderating Role of Organizational Structure

This research aimed to explore the relationship of leadership styles, i.e. Transformational and transactional leadership styles with KM effectiveness in the presence of organizational moderation structure. To achieve the purpose of the study, we collect the data from faculty members (i.e. lecturer to professor) of all public sector universities located in Islamabad. The data were collected through adopted Likert type scale. Scale reliability and validity were ensured. We received a total of 300 valid responses out of 400 distributed sample with a response rate of 75%. The results revealed that transformational leadership has a significant association with KM effectiveness and transactional leadership has an insignificant relationship with KM effectiveness. Furthermore, we also found that organizational structure moderated the relationship of transformational leadership and KM effectiveness and did not moderate in the case of transactional leadership style and KM effectiveness. Limitations, recommendations and implications are also highlighted.
Keywords: Leadership Styles, Organizational Structure, Knowledge Management Effectiveness, Universities.

Tracing Cultural Morphing and Hybrid Identity Concerns in Selected Pakistani Diasporic Anglophone Fiction

This research explores the diasporic experience of Pakistani immigrants. Migration may be considered as 'a liberating region' and provide an opportunity to break away from stifling traditions. However, diasporic identity can also be marked by a sense of loss and trauma at removal, even if by choice, from one's homeland. Leaving the indigenous homeland can in some instances bring to the surface South Asia's shortcomings as well as the legacies of colonialism that cultivated divisions, based on religion through the strategic exploitation of perceived weaknesses of the colonized. Even after the end of imperialism in India, the religious divisions between Hindu and Muslim communities had become ingrained and continue to permeate the lives of post-independent generations as is evident in the novel Maps for Lost Lovers (2004). Theories presented by Robin Cohen and Arjun Appadurai about culture and diaspora support this research. The irony is that rather than taking comfort and strength from the community as a source of cohesion, the community can turn on itself, and tensions that existed in a previous homeland can be transferred to the present time and trigger disproportionate responses.
Keywords: Diaspora, Migration, Immigrants, Colonization, Pakistan, South Asia.
HASSAN BIN ZUBAIR and NIGHAT AHMED 169-178 Download(40)

Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS): the Myth and Reality

The sufferings of Muslim world increased since new world order and uni-polarity of US. Muslim world is rich of natural resources and super powers always tried their best to exploit it for their interest through fair or unfair means. The situation became worse when the US become the sole super power of the world after USSR disintegration in 1991. Now there is no one to stop US from its atrocities which it carried out in Middle East for the exploitation of natural resources and for the security of Israel. US first creates a terrorist group and then use it against its enemies, when the task is completed; US publicizes it as threat to world security and implement the solution in the shape of military intervention. Like US did in Afghanistan and now is doing in Middle East. As US publicized that War on terror was imposed due to Al-Qaeda and now made hue and cry about Islamic state in Iraq and Syria. Those will only believe on this propaganda of Zionist controlled media who is unaware of History and US policies, which is largely controlled by Jewish lobby. The aim of the article is to find out the fact about US policy towards Middle East and its hue and cry about Islamic State which is a propaganda tool of US to carry out its policy of further intervention and interference in oil rich Middle East.
Keywords: US, Islamic State, Middle East, Israel, Terrorism.
SADIA FAYAZ 179-186 Download(35)

Missing Facilities of Schools and Educational Exclusion of Children: A Study of Southern Punjab, Pakistan

Education is the legal and universal right of every child without discrimination but unfortunately Pakistan is among those countries where millions of school age children are excluded from getting primary education. The current research was conducted to examine the relationship between missing facilities of primary schools and educational exclusion of school age children in south Punjab, Pakistan. School facilities have a vibrant role in the education inclusion of school age children. The availability of the basic necessities of primary schools attracts and motivates the parents to send their children and be confident of the bright future of their children. Basic necessities of school include (washroom, basic furniture, Quantity of fans, School location, school building, School wall, classroom roofs, gate, doors and windows, lights, school security, cleanliness of school). All parents whose children were between 5-16 years old were the population of this research. The researcher collected the data from 3 districts (Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalpur) of South Punjab. A sample of 975 was by using the multistage sampling. Interview schedule was used for data collection because majority of the respondents were illiterate or hesitated to fill the questionnaire. The strong relationship was found between the missing faculties of schools and exclusion of school age children in south Punjab, Pakistan. It was found that the missing school facilities (washroom, basic furniture, classrooms, pure drinking water, playground, lower quantity of fans, School location, school building, School wall, classroom roofs, gate, doors and windows, lights, school security, cleanliness of school) caused the exclusion of the primary school children in South Punjab. In the light of findings of the research it is suggested that government should have to enhance the educational budget to overcome the issue of missing facilities of school in South Punjab, Pakistan.
Keywords: Educational Exclusion, Primary School, Missing Facilities, South Punjab.
Population Growth and Resource Constraint Phenomenon: Contemporary and Quranic Viewpoint
The main purpose of this paper is to explore the comparison of traditional and Quranic (Islamic) view of birth control in line with scarce resources. The comparative analysis is applied to seek the differences of two streams, contemporary and Islamic. Traditional theories focus on the birth control followed by the proposition that population is growing too faster than world resources which result reduction in living standards of the masses. Islam has its own plausible underlying theory and rejects the conventional theory of birth control. It is undoubtedly mentioned by Allah in the Holy book Quran that unlimited resources have been created by Him. Islam rather encourages more fertility rate as it considers it as basic instinct. The findings reveal that Islam contradicts conventional thought of population control. Islam also condemns using the contraceptives and permit for Azl (Islamic Contraceptive) under some specific conditions. Government intrusion is not at all permitted by Islam to disseminate controlling the birth rate. The findings also delineate that fertility plan is very much personal subject of spouses. Islam underlines that there are unlimited resources bestowed by the Allah (The Creator), and it is one of the main responsibilities of State to exploit these productive resources and deploy them in a productive way to increase the welfare of humanity.
Keywords: Population Growth, Limited Resources, Birth Control Rate.

Teaching Practices Used for Developing Writing Skills at Secondary School Level: A Qualitative Exploration

Teaching practices for developing students‟ writing skills perform a great role at every level of education. This paper explores and compares the teaching of English writing skills at secondary education streams i.e. Matriculation and O level in Pakistan. Sample was selected from private schools of Lahore city conducting Matriculation and O level concurrently. Twelve private schools were selected through random sampling technique. From these twelve schools one teacher of Matriculation and one teacher of O level were selected to collect data. Interviews were conducted from teachers of these schools to explore the teaching practices for developing writing skills at secondary education streams. The comparison between the views of teachers at Matriculation and O level resulted that the teachers at O level perform more proactively with their students on their engagement in English classrooms and choose the appropriate method of assessment for their students. There are more brainstorming practices, feedback practices, extensive reading and process oriented writing at O level. On contrary, for developing writing skills teachers of Matriculation mostly use written clues, memorization without developing creativity, criticality and generating ideas. They rely on text books for teaching writing. The recommendations are made to the relevant authorities.
Keywords: Writing, Teaching of English, Secondary Education.

Interpersonal Communication and Adoption of Farm Practices in Agriculture: A Survey of South Punjab, Pakistan

Agriculture sector of Pakistan is in dire need to adopt latest farm practices for enhancement of agricultural productivity. Pakistani farmers utilized interpersonal communication in many shapes such as, mutual discussion with friends, fellow farmers, vendors/change agents, extension workers for seeking agricultural information. In order to achieve the required adoption of farm practices, policy makers have to make policies for effective communication. This study generally finds the statistical relationship between information obtained via interpersonal communication using social contacts and adoption of farm practices by the farmers. Finding of study showed the significant relationship of >.235** with the p=.000 between usage of interpersonal communication and obtained agricultural information and also significant relationship at the level >.589** with the p=.000 between agricultural information sought through interpersonal communication and adoption of recommended practices in agriculture sector of Pakistan. However, mean score of the usage of interpersonal communication is at medium level which also varies according to different types of interpersonal communication.
Keywords: Interpersonal Communication, Farmers, Agricultural Information, South Punjab, Adoption of Farm Practices.

Countering Terrorism and Emotional Stability of University Students in Pakistan

The basic intention of current research was to evaluate the linkage between terrorism and emotional stability of students in universities of Pakistan. The objectives of the study were to know the state of emotional health of students along with signs and symptoms of emotional instability to access the need of training program with regard to terrorism. Mixed method approach was decided to record the observations and insights of the respondents while sample represents 240 students and 14 head of departments from Government College University, Faisalabad. Data was prepared through self-developed instrument for survey (Students) and semi structured interview sheet for Head of Departments. The conclusion was made by using inferential statistics while themes and sub themes of interviews were also reported in a narrative style. The paper indicates towards the state of emotional instability of students and suggests for developing a training program countering the effects of terrorism.
Keywords: Emotional, Stability, Terrorism, Training Program.

Provision of Early Childhood Special Education to Children with Deafness Enrolled in Public Sector Special Schools in Punjab: A Mixed Method Enquiry

The aim of this mixed-method research study was to find out existing conditions, facilities, services and practices in Early Childhood Special Education for young children with deafness from ages 3-8 years. The population of study consisted of all Government Deaf & Defective Hearing Schools working throughout the Punjab province, their administrators, and teachers. The number of administrators participating in the study was 25. The sample size of teachers was 76 (females=55, males=21) selected from 25 districts of the Punjab through simple random sampling. One interview schedule for administrators and one questionnaire for teachers dealing with young children with deafness were developed. Data were collected in person by arranging meetings with administrators and teachers. Data gathered from administrators were analysed after transcribing and coding their responses. Emerging themes were derived. Major findings were reported. Recommendations to the Punjab Special Education Department were made and conclusions were drawn. Implications for teacher training programs in special education were discussed.
Keywords: Early Childhood Special Education, Young Children with deafness, Public Sector Special Schools, Punjab Province.

Effect of Pakistans Ticking Population Bomb on Economy: An Empirical Testing among the Population Growth, Women Literacy, Technical Education and Economic Growth

World’s sixth most populous country Pakistan has been confronted with the ticking population bomb since long with successive democratic and military regimes miserably failing to tam the issue of population with various family planning programs mainly due to religious beliefs and illiteracy of women. Also the issue has not been addressed effectively due to lack of technical knowledge among the higher population. Following neoclassical growth model, this study aims to test empirically both short and long run dynamics among population explosion, women literacy ratio, technical education and economic growth via ARDL techniques. Findings confirm significantly a negative association of population with growth for both short and long run with other results implying that mutual interaction between female literacy ratio and population growth significantly contribute to long run growth. Also the study revealed that mutual interaction between technical training and population growth has significantly a positive long run effect on growth. Strategically this study recommends that higher women literacy reduces fertility and population growth, consequently spurs economic growth. Also the issue could be addressed effectively with disseminating technical knowledge to the country large population, consequently is an economic dividend.
Keywords: Population Growth, Women Literacy Ratio, Technical Education, Economic Growth, Pakistan.

Socio-Demographic Differences in Coping among Chronic Hepatitis Patients

Coping has emerged as an important indicator of quality of life among patients with chronic and terminal conditions. This cross-sectional exploratory study aims to examine the role of social, economic and demographic characteristics (for instance age, gender, education, family type, area of living, marital status, number of children, etc.) in adoption of coping strategies among chronically ill HCV patients. The researcher used quantitative research design which employed a well-structured multi-sectional interview schedule in five district headquarter (DHQ) hospitals in Punjab. A sample of 500 terminally ill HCV patients was selected through multistage sampling followed by an interview in the hospital setting. Interviews were conducted after the consent of respondents and approval of physician. The current research provides an insight of coping among terminally ill HCV patients. Results indicated no significant differences in adoption of coping on the basis of gender, locality, family type, age, number of children and number of sons. Patients with lower educational level, lower economic status and having life partner showed better adoption of coping strategies.
Keywords: HCV, Chronic Illness, Terminal Illness, Coping, Socio-Demographics.

Analysis of Golden Era and Decline of Pakistan Hockey: A Case Study of National Level

Hockey is known as Pakistan national game although it was introduced in sub-continent by the British. In the field of hockey Pakistan ruled over the world as world champion for long since. Pakistan hockey earned world titles in champion trophies, Olympic and Asian games. But in present time, it is hard to say that the Pakistan hockey has been victimized of decline due to numerous reasons. This article elucidates factors behind the glorious period as well as elements caused the declination and sufficient measures for the revival of Pakistan Hockey. The article is consisted of parameters of qualitative research by making semi-structured interviews with twenty respondents. This article deals three major questions such as what were the factors behind the glorious period of national game hockey, what are reasons caused demise or decline of national game Hockey and what are sufficient measures need to be taken for the revival of Hockey. Under the insight of inferences of the article one thing has been declared that the former governments, Pakistan Hockey Federation (PHF) and old players are due responsible for the demise of Pakistan Hockey. It is hard to say that the Pakistan hockey is going to decline since two decades it could not be able to earn world champion trophy except Asian trophies due to lack of mismanagement of Pakistan Hockey Federation, facilitations, funds, non-serious attitude of old players and Olympians and role of school colleges. There should be grave attention to grass root level, Pakistan Sports Board and Punjab Sports Boards hockey competition must be conducted as well as under- fourteen and under- nineteen competitions must be continued and annual proficiency reports must be analyzed by government.
Keywords: Hockey, Hockey Federation, Pakistan Sports Boards, Olympians, Coaches.

Reflective Practice: An Effective Skill in Supporting Change among Secondary Schools’ Heads in Sindh

The purpose of this research study was to check awareness among secondary school heads about reflective practice and its role as a change agent. The study is descriptive and quantitative, for the purpose, a questionnaire having questions related to the importance and role of reflective practices was designed and data was collected from 50 heads working in public and private schools of two of the towns of Karachi i.e. Jamshad and Sadar Town. The analysis reveals that heads are having awareness about the importance of reflective practices but they are not familiar with its use. Therefore, it is recommended that a workshop for the heads could be arranged to enhance their knowledge and use.
Keywords: Reflective Practices; Effective Skill, Change and Secondary School Heads.

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