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Academy of IRMBR Volume  8, April, 2020
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Pakistan Policy Choices and Their Contribution to Terrorism on Its Own Soil

In this age of globalization and webbing every state tries to take maximum benefits out of its counter parts and friends; every state nurtures its institutions and agencies to serve its national interest at every cost locally as well as globally. Sometimes or even frequently the interest of one state meet opposite with the interest of other states and can shape problems like cold wars, proxy wars etc. In North West Pakistan, the insurgency problems are not of a simple nature but are highly complex and multifarious. It is not the product of a single person, religion or ideology but it is the product of global, regional, national and local developments. This is a product of Pakistan choices and the neighborhood of Afghanistan. This study is answering three questions; how terrorism emerged in Pakistan? How Pakistan supported US mission on Afghan soil against USSR? And Why Pakistan choose to join US in war against terror after the 9/11. This research is analytical and exploratory while considering the events happened before and after the invasion of United States in Afghanistan.
Keywords: Pakistan Foreign Policy, US, 9/11, Terrorism, Afghanistan, Taliban.

Adaptation of Farmers to Climate Change: A Multifaceted Commitment Involving Differentiated Justifications

Agricultural policies have recently integrated climate issues and deploy a range of measures aimed at changing farming practices. Looking beyond the institutional discourse which emphasizes the difficulties of involving farmers in measures for dealing with climate change, the results of our research provide a basis for envisaging other lines of reflection. The adoption of new practices by farmers is only partially a response to the normative measures of government policy, but it depends above all on the way these actors integrate climate issues in their value systems. Based on a qualitative methodology involving semi-structured interviews, the results of the research presented here highlight the modes of decision-making of farmers, that they are based on their own professional and social networks. Whatever the changes put into practice, we show that they are based on a common core of perception, what is referred to by French rural sociologists as the peasant ideology with an attachment to the land and the need to protect it as a central value. Nevertheless, we shall nuance this result by distinguishing two forms of justification for the introduction of new practices: the reference to an ecological modernization versus an approach related to a global ecological approach. If the major part of farmers doesn’t refer to a global view of earth, which represents the mainstream discourse about climate change, they take care of land on behalf of a heritage duty.
Keywords: Climate Change, Farmer’s Adaptation and Practices and Values.
CHANTAL ASPE and MARIE JACQUE 11-25 Download(69)

The Contribution of "Mythical" Wetlands to the Sustainable Local Development. As a Case Study: The Peloponnese Peninsula (Greece)

The study refers on the contribution of "mythical" wetlands, to the sustainable development of sites. The case study selected, is the Peloponnese peninsula, namely the wetland at Anavalos in Argolis, the river Ladonas in Arcadia, the sources of Lerni in Argolis, Stymfalia Lake and Doxa in Corinthia and Hydra Styx in Achaia. Initially, the relationship between the aquatic landscapes with humans is explained and the utility of the aquatic sites is emphasized on an ideological level. The interdisciplinary range of research is based on the mythological connection of wetlands to historical, geological, geographical, social and cultural elements. The approach explores how the natural and anthropogenic landscape - a picture of a place - can help interpret and exploit this place and influence the potentials or even trigger the activation of the regions wider development. Therefore, the need for prudent management and utilization, is highlighted, in order to contribute for the increase in traffic and on the wider development of sites. In terms of cultural elements, the methodology of the approach was based on historical facts as well as on personal contact with the inhabitants of the wider areas. The link between wetlands is mythology, which creates the basic network that will connect the areas under consideration. The wetlands that were selected for the case study are based on mythological, geographical and on some specific physical characteristics of each site. Both the research methodology, the conclusions and proposals can be applied not only to the selected research areas but also to other areas with similar characteristics.
Keywords: Mythical Wetlands, Local Development, Sustainable Development, Peloponnese Peninsula.

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