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Academy of IRMBR Volume  9, March, 2021
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Financialisation of Sex, Class and Power: Ambitious Frank Cowperwood in Theodore Dreiser’s Trilogy of Desire

The paper aims to describe the protagonist as ambitious to become the member of upper class in American society and financial gains by violating ethics for the purpose of power. He struggles and utilizes all sources to achieve his desired goals based on financial success. His involvement in different business activities, his movements from cities to cities and his emotional attachments are focused in Theodore Dreiser’s Trilogy of Desire (1972); The Financier (1912), The Titan (1914) and The Stoic (1947) are subtitled as Trilogy of Desire. The title is consciously selected as it not only deals with three novels but also represents the three main desires of Frank Cowperwood: desire for financial gains, own and appreciate great works of art, and enjoy the company of beautiful women. The perspectives that illuminate the research aim is to explore the effects of financialisation on the power, sex and class. The collected data is analysed through inventory technique by descriptive and interpretative approaches. This research provides contribution for future research to highlight the same characteristics in another literary piece.
Keywords: Ambition, Business, Movement, Emotional Attachment, Financialisation.

Impact of Compensation System and Organizational Justice on Employees’ Performance with Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment

The organizational performance is outcome of total individual performances. As such improvement in employees’ performance is indispensable for improving organizational performance. It has been established in various studies that performance of employees is influenced by organizational justice as well as adequate compensation system. However, mediating role of organizational commitment which ultimately motivate employees to contribute effectively towards organizational goals has not so far been studied. Therefore, this study has been undertaken to determine the impact of organizational justice and compensation system with mediating role of organizational commitment. The present study establishes the impact of independent as well as intervening variables on dependent variables and will be useful for practicing managers to help them formulate HR Policies for improvement in performance of their employees.
Keywords: Organizational Justice, Organizational Commitment, Employees’ Performance, Compensation System.

Effect of Perceived Transformational Leadership Style and Innovative Work Behavior: A Moderating Role of Psychological Empowerment

The current study aimed to explore effect of perceived transformational leadership style, psychological empowerment on innovative work behavior among IT workers in Pakistan. The data of the study was collected from 400 participants, with age ranged between 25-50 from different Government Offices, Institutes, and Departments of Punjab and Khyber Pukhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan. A set of self-report measures were used for tapping on mentioned topics i.e. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Bass &Avolio, 1997), Innovative Work Behaviour Scale (Janssen, 2000), Psychological Empowerment Scale (Spreitzer, 1995b). Cross-sectional survey research design was executed for the current study. Multiple regression analysis revealed that perceived transformational leadership style of IT workers was significant positive predictor of innovative work behaviour. All sub-dimensions of Transformational Leadership style (TRF) were also found to be significant positive predictor of IWB. Multiple regression analysis further demonstrated that psychological empowerment (PE) and its facet as significant positive predictor of IWB. Hierarchical regression accounted for moderation analyses revealed that PE, significantly moderated between perceived TRF and IWB such that interaction of these variables and TRF strengthened the positive effect of TRF on IWB. Implications of this study and suggestions for future empirical exploration of the construct have been also discussed.
Keywords: Transformational Leadership Style, Psychological Empowerment, Innovative Work Behaviour.

The Evolving Paradigm for Alternate Dispute Resolution to Complement the Judicial System of Pakistan.

This paper aims to elucidate that in Pakistan legal system alternate dispute resolution mechanisms can make justice more expeditious and efficacious. The rationale of the study is to suggest ways by which ADR can be used as as an effective alternate to conventional litigation. The object of the paper is to recommend that with help of proper implementation of laws on the subject, availability of the effective mechanisms ,resources and of infrastructures this aspiration can be achieved in true letter and spirit. With qualitative research methodology, this paper has examined the ADR uprising in the contemporary administration of justice system in Pakistan. The research has highlighted some grey areas in the conventional litigation and points out that how state has failed to provide necessary support and enabling infrastructure for ADR to be absorbed in the justice delivery system of Pakistan despite of the indispensability of ADR to contrive judicial system of Pakistan.
Keywords: Dispute Resolution, Alternate, Institutional Frameworks. Enforcement of rights, ADR.

Transgender, Gender Affirmation and Resilient Strategies: A Case Study of Transgender Youth in Peshawar Pakistan

This paper explores the strategies used by transgender youth for their gender affirmation in the social context of trans-phobia and trans-prejudice in Peshawar and an understanding of prostitution as a means of economic survival in the backdrop of religious beliefs. The study documented the prevailing socio-economic status of transgender youth for a better understanding of the prevailing socio-economic condition of the transgender youth. The study followed the qualitative research approach and used the convenience sampling technique for reaching out to 35 transgender youth in Peshawar. Data was collected through in-depth interviews, questionnaires, and focus group discussions. The data collected was analyzed via the thematic analysis technique. The findings of the study show that a total of five resilient strategies are used by transgender youth for gender affirmation namely; family and friendship acceptance, interacting with healthcare services and social service organizations, connection with a supportive community, dealing and building relationships with higher authorities, and others which included dancing, begging and prostitution.
Keywords: Heteronormativity, Transgender Youth, Gender Affirmation, Gender Resilience.
Education and Its Role in Family Life (A Case Study of District Mardan, KP, Pakistan)
The present study entitled education and its role in family life with major focus to see the contribution of education in various dimensions of family life. This study was conducted in five selected wards of district Mardan,KPK, namely, Ghaznavi colony, Bajaur colony, Tariq abad colony, Sarwar abad colony and Nowshera colony. A sample size of 346 was selected out of total 3472 as devised by Sekaran (2003) formula. For data collection, a structured interview schedule was used. Moreover, the independent variable education as an agent was cross tabulated with dependent variable change in family life through chi square test. A highly significant association (P= 0.000) was found between increased social mobility in family and education. Likewise, a significant association (P=0.000) was found between the ratio of education and the change in family structure. Similarly, a significant relationship (P=0.000) was disclosed between the outlook of family members and education. Furthermore, a highly significant association (P=0.000) was found between transformation of joint family structure into nuclear family and education. Moreover, a significant relationship (P=0.000) was found between change in functions of family and education. the enhancement of education on family level as well as on national level would play a key role in bringing improvement in society was suggested as a policy recommendation.
Keywords: Education, Family life, Role, Socialization, Social Mobility.

Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions about E- Learning of English Courses amid Covid-19 Pandemic

With unprecedented problems, the year 2020 has challenged the, social, political, national and economic landscapes all over the world. Covid-19 pandemic has demanded globally the education system to adapt to new challenging situations by giving up conventional learning and emphasizing the possibilities of exploiting e-learning. Covid-19 made it imperative to enhance the learning to prevent any delays in education due to unforeseeable pandemic and e-learning permeated into the academia as a mainstream. The perception of students and teachers about e-learning and their readiness regarding this shift in education was investigated in the context of Pakistan (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). One hundred students and fifty teachers from five universities participated in the present study. Two semi structured interviews were used as research instruments to investigate their respective perceptions. The findings of the study show that some subjects like novel and phonetics and phonology were considered as difficult to learn their content and students perceived e-learning to be a failure as they faced technical, computer literacy and awareness problems and were resistant to change to a new mode of education. However the teachers perceived e-learning to be an effective tool for pedagogy reshaping the dissemination and acquisition of knowledge throughout the society.
Keywords: E-learning, Covid-19, Digital pedagogy, information technology, Pandemic.
RABIA GUL, GHANI RAHMAN and ARIF KHAN 62-69 Download(21)

Social Media and One-Way Flow of Information: A case study of Muslims and non-Muslims Facebook participation on Paris Attacks

This study is an analysis of Facebook posts and comments shared by Muslims and non-Muslims after the Paris attacks of 14th November 2015. The comparative analysis is important as it will provide insight into the Muslims and non-Muslims reactions on the attacks. Content analysis of 500 posts from the hash tags with names #condemnparisattack, #prayforparis and #parisattack on Facebook was conducted. Quantitative analysis was done to measure the frequency of post shared by Muslims and non-Muslims. For Qualitative analysis, comments with the posts were analyzed. Results show that Muslims were more active in terms of their participation in both posting new material and commenting on already posted material than non-Muslims. Muslims show their solidarity towards Attacks whereas non-Muslims were more critical and blamed Muslims for the attacks.
Keywords: Comparative Analysis, Critical, Qualitative, Quantitative.

Examining the Effects of E-security and E-service Quality on Customer Loyalty of Online Shoppers in Pakistan: The Mediating Role of Customer Satisfaction.

In today’s world of the internet, and the spread of COVID-19 online business has picked up unprecedented steam. In developing countries like Pakistan where E-business was still in its nascent stage has also gained acceptance as the new norm. Which has increased the significance of studying E-service quality and E-security and enhancing customer loyalty in Pakistan. The current study characterizes E-security and E-service quality as antecedents of customer loyalty (e-loyalty) and attempts to map the mediating role of customer satisfaction. Current literature emphasizes work on only considering one dimension of e-loyalty i-e behavioral e-loyalty whereas in this research paper both dimensions of e-loyalty i-e attitudinal and behavioral are taken under consideration. Explicitly this study examines the role of customer satisfaction as mediator between antecedents of e-loyalty i-e E-security and E-service quality and e-loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) among the university students. The study utilizes quantitative approach and is focused on comparing the effectiveness of promotional video advertisements by the brands for generating customer loyalty. Cross-sectional survey method is utilized for collection of data. The scales for e-security, E-service quality, customer satisfaction, behavioral e-loyalty and attitudinal e-loyalty were adopted. Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship of e-loyalty with its antecedents for measuring the effects of mediation; Preacher and Hayes model 4 has been used. The results of the study show E-e-security having a “significance” value less than 0.05 which shows that there is significant correlation between E-e-security. E-service quality has a “significance” value greater than 0.05 and is reported as 0.068, which shows that there is lack of significant correlation between E-service quality and e-loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral). Significant meditating role of customer satisfaction and significant direct effect of e-e-security on e-loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral), where as insignificant direct effect of e-service quality on e-loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) which provide evidences for mediation. In particular, it can be seen that effect of e-security and e-service quality on e-loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) of an online shopper is positively strengthened by satisfaction of online customers.
Keywords: E-service Quality, E-security, Customer Satisfaction, Behavioral E-loyalty, Attitudinal E-loyalty.

Instrumental Agents of Migration among the Youth of Pakistan

The basic aim of this research study was to explore the causative agents of migration from Pakistan among the youths. Population of this particular research study included of all those young generations migrated to others countries from Pakistan. A snowball sampling techniques was used for selecting the sample from the whole population. The sample size of 200 were collected from Dera Ismail Khan. For gathering the requisite data, the researcher formulated and used a likert type scale. The data obtained from the respondents were processed and articulated through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Version, 24) by using different statistical tools. Based on data analysis, the researcher drew the conclusion that poverty, unemployment and education are dominant causative agents of migration among the youth of Pakistan.
Keywords: Causative Agents, Migration, Youth, Pakistan.

Title: Life 2.0: The Virtual Behavior of Pakistanis During The First Wave of COVID-19

What people do when they are online particularly during the COVID-19? It is a question that remains the same but the answers are different. In the present world, social media plays a vital role in all the segments of life. People use social media for several purposes. The behavioral patterns of people give birth to social and psychological dynamics of a 'hyper-real world'. This study investigates the behavioral patterns and the usage of social media in Pakistan during the COVID-19. A mixed-method approach vis-a-vis qualitative in the form of focus groups and interviews while quantitative in the form of a survey was used to collect the data. The focus Group Discussion and interviews were analyzed using NVIVO, and SPSS was employed to analyze the survey data. The findings indicate that majority of the respondents use social media for several purposes including seeking information, sharing opinions, interacting with others, watching content for fun, etc. All these activities when combined transform them into a 'Virtual Behavior' of the online users. It is recommended that netizens must train themselves to avoid the negative effects of social media use. As it was observed during the pandemic, people spent more time on social media than ever before, fake news and misinformation were other problems, and therefore, users firstly must self-regulate their behavior and then also equip themselves to encounter such negative aspects of social media usage.
Keywords: Internet, Social Media, Virtual Behavior, Pakistan, COVID-19.

Teacher Training Practices in UK; Adaptable Practices for the Teacher Educators of Pakistan

The education system is one of the major pillars of a country, while teachers are the backbone of the same, therefore a country that developed a good system of teacher education and had demonstrated some model practices would be good to observe and evaluate their practices. Such practices could be adapted after deliberation with local experts. The major objective of the study is to understand the adaptable strategies necessary for improving the teacher training practices in developing countries. The sensitivity of the roles and responsibilities, demonstration of ethical practices, amendments in curricula, need assessment and identification of learning disabilities are some considerable elements.
Keywords: Teacher Education, System, Roles, Responsibilities.

Nexuses between Teachers Attributes and Children Exclusion: A Study of Southern Punjab, Pakistan

The present article examines the teachers’ attributes and educational exclusion of children in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The limited studies focused the relationship between teachers’ attributes and educational exclusion of school age children in Southern Punjab. The current study was conducted in the 3 districts, “Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalpur” of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The researcher used the multistage random sampling and selected 975 household heads as a sample. Interview schedule was used as a tool for gathering the data because majority of the respondents were illiterate and had poor socio-economic status. It was found that teachers’ attributes have a great influence on the enrolment of the school age children. The study reported that majority of the respondent did “Agree” that teachers mentally tortured/ Bullied the children; non-availability of female teacher; shortage of teachers in their native schools; corporal punishment given to the student; teachers came late in the schools; teachers absenteeism from schools; teachers did not teach properly to the students; abusive language of teachers in the schools; teachers biased/ prejudiced against students were the key factors in the exclusion of primary school children. It is suggested that the education department should have to recruit the new teachers on urgent basis where they are needed without discrimination of sex and organize frequently professional teachers training to tackle the above mentioned issues to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Keywords: Teachers’ Attributes, Educational Exclusion, Corporal Punishment, Prejudice, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Factors that Motivate Learners to Learn English in the Context of District Ghizer Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

The main focus of the paper is to explore the factors which motivate the students in public sector universities of Pakistan towards learning English. The paper further explains the factors which affect second language motivation (L2) and prominent difference in motivation. Research questionnaire was developed to study L2 motivation by following Gardener's model to measure the motivational factors for English language learning in the context of Ghizer, Gilgit Baltistan. For this research study responses of two participants were selected having postgraduate level studying in public sector universities. These participants were interviewed and the data obtained from interviews was manually transcribed. After reading the interview transcripts several times codes were generated and themes and sub-themes were defined. The interview questions played a pivotal role in defining themes and sub-themes. The data was then analyzed by categorizing it into the defined themes and sub-themes and finally the report was developed. The results indicated that the students were instrumentally motivated to learn English. The motivating factors highlighted by participants are language of the modern world, influence of society, better future prospects, professional requirements and fear of shame and failure and to pursue higher education. Finally, some recommendations have been given that the future study could aim at the findings that could give more insight into the linguistic realities of district Ghizer and Gilgit Baltistan.
Keywords: Motivation, Learning English, Motivating Factors, Linguist Realities, Contextual Setting.

Impact of Social Media on Academic Performance among University Students

Social media has been used for various purposes and its applications especially Facebook, WhatsApp, Messenger, Instagram, and Twitter are tremendously used among students. These are not only used for communication and entertainment but also as portal for accessing knowledge and information. On one hand, students use social media platforms for accessing information about their studies while on other hand it is generally perceived that it effects academic performance negatively. The current study aims to highlight the impact of social media platforms on academic performance among students in Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad and aims to highlight the association between time spent on social media and their reported CGPA. Quantitative research approach has been used to assess the role of social media application on academic performance. Through simple random sampling, a self-administrated questionnaire was used for data collection. The data was collected from three hundred and ninety students and their responses were inserted into SPSS, and were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. The former technique incorporates frequency tables and crosstabulations while later includes linear regression based on the research question and nature of the question. The findings of the study reveal that despite accessing information from social media students perceived that social media applications affects academic performance negatively and more time is spent on chatting and recreational purposes than studying. As majority of the students use it for recreational purpose, to chat with friends and to get information easily. Linear Regression Model has been applied to predict the association of time spent on social media and reported CGPA. The results of linear regression highlight that slope of time spent on social media and reported CGPA is not equal to zero. It means time spent on social media and reported CGPA are dependent on each other.
Keywords: Social Media Platform, Academic Performance, Time Spent on Social Media.

Relationship Between Character Traits and Criminal Behavior

Criminality is a complex construct, and studies delineating the relationship between morality and crime, within a broader explanation of offending, are scarce. The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the relationship between criminal behavior and character traits, as espoused by the Islamic concept of character i.e. Husn-i-akhlaaq. Differences on the target construct were mapped between a community sample of non-offenders (n=50) and an incarcerated offender sample (n=50) regarding both positive and negative character traits, using the Husn-i-akhlaaq Inventory (HAI). Results showed significant differences between the two groups on the Razail domain scale and most of its facet scales, with incarcerated offenders scoring higher as compared to non-offenders, thus indicating a relationship between negative character traits and criminal behaviour. On the three positive domain scales the differences between the two groups were non-significant, however, on some of their facet scales the differences were significant. A closer analysis of these facet level results reveals the presence of many positive primary character traits in the non-offender population and, some in the offender population too, with significant differences. Similarly, the presence of a few primary negative character traits in the non-offender sample indicates the presence of certain vices in this group also. The presence of both positive and negative character traits, in an individual highlight the dimensional nature of character and it may be the relative strength of the vices as compared to an individual’s virtues which may just tip the scale, ending the one with more vices in a lifestyle characterized by criminal behavior. This has important implications for proper character assessment and effective character interventions.
Keywords: Crime, Positive Character Traits, Negative Character Traits, Incarcerated Offenders, Non-Offenders, Assessment, Character Interventions.

Politics of Racial In/Visibility in Wright’s Black Boy and Angelou’s I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings

The present research work takes into account the politics of racial in/visibility of Blacks in White dominated American society. Race is used as a mode of social hierarchy and identity formation in America which allows Whites to embark upon a superior pedestal as compared to Blacks in political, social, cultural, legal and economic milieus. The presence of Whites is visible and conspicuous in the society but the colored people are invisible and non-existent for the Whites. All the noblest attributes are attached with the Whites and they are also considered as the epitome of enlightenment; whereas, Blacks are stereotypically stigmatized as alcoholic, lazy, unintelligent and uncivilized in America and their merits are not applauded which generates invisibility syndrome. Multitudes of Blacks suffer from psychological trauma, emotional abuse, physical violence and economic instability if they try to get equal rights, to break the white canons and to surpass the whites. However, some of the colored people like Richard Wright and Maya Angelou stood against their oppression through their ceaseless resistance and defiance to earn respectable positions in the society. These dimensions are studied in this research work through the cardinal characters of Wright’s Black Boy and Angelou’s I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings with the help of Derek Bell’s Critical Race Theory as conceptual framework. By the in-depth probing into the two selected autobiographies, the readers are enabled to explore the insider’s view on the repercussions of penetrating racial discrimination and white supremacy in African-American society.
Keywords: Race, Invisibility, African-American, Poverty, Resistance, Discrimination, White Supremacy.

The Emotional Dynamics of Mother Fixation in Sons and Lovers and its Impact on Students’ Perception

The central objective of this study is to examine the effects of the phenomenon of Mother Fixation in D.H. Lawrence‟s novel Sons and Lovers on students‟ perception. In a conventional family culture of Pakistan, mother-son tie is considered as the warmest bond but Lawrence has portrayed a very eccentric sort of mother-son relationship, causing sensation among readers. The principal argument arises from the hypothesis that the main theme of the novel is in absolute disparity with the social values of Pakistani society, so it aggravates contrary response from students. While using phenomenology as research paradigm with structured, semi-structured, informal and retrospective interviews as methods of data collection, this study aims at analyzing the influence of Mother Fixation on students‟ judgments, emotional state and actions. Findings of the study reveal that the selected phenomenon of Mother Fixation in terms of sexuality does not seem to be applicable to Pakistani society. Besides, if the novel is taught by taking care of the moral confines of our society, it might not exercise perilous impact on students.
Keywords: Mother Fixation, Phenomenology, Interview.

Understanding the Journalistic Perspective Regarding the Role of Media in Transforming Dressing Styles of Women in Pakistan

This study attempts to understand the journalistic perspective regarding the role of media in transforming dressing styles of women in Pakistan. Fashion is not only, one of the largest industries of the world but it is an integral and essential part of our life. It is assumed that media has the power to transform and replace cultural norms and values of a society. However, fashion journalists’ are considered arbitrators of taste as they tell people about the latest fashion and prompt general public that how to carry or place new trends. They not only highlight but also promote the fashion a step ahead with the transforming cultural dimension of the society. The present study identified the factors that leads to transformation in terms of culture. Theoretical framework of the present research was determined by the cultural transformation theory. To probe the perspective and approaches of fashion journalists, the current research employed In-depth-interview as research method. The proportionate sample of 17 (N=17) fashion journalists (both males and females) were chosen through purposive sampling procedure. The measures for collecting data comprehended a face sheet including demographic details and interview protocol was also developed. The finding revealed that fashion journalists has a significant role to transform dressing styles of women in Pakistan and they hold the ability to reshape and reshape the cultural values of a society.
Keywords: Fashion Journalism, Photographs, Cultural Transformation, Pakistani Newspapers, Fashion Journalists, Clothing.
SABA SULTANA and NOOR HAYAT 189-197 Download(14)

Teaching Language to Children with Hearing Impairment at Early Childhood Education level

The importance of ECE is evident because learning in the early years has a long-lasting impact on the future life of young children with hearing impairment (YCWHI). This paper is an attempt to highlight the status of language teaching to children with hearing impairment in their early years of education at school. The objectives of this study were to explore the methods used for teaching language to the children with hearing impairment at K.G(1&2) level and grade 1 in the schools of Punjab and to investigate the problems of teachers in teaching language skills to the children with hearing impairment at, K. G (1 & 2) and grade one. The targeted population of the study was teachers teaching at the K.G (1 & 2) and level one in the schools of children with hearing impairment at Punjab. A total number of 96 teachers were selected through a random sampling technique from the schools of the 8 divisions of Punjab. The majority of the teachers were Master in special education with 3 to 20 years of job experience. A self-made questionnaire was used as a tool in the study. Content validity was estimated through experts' opinion and reliability (.88) was estimated after piloting. SPSS was used to analyze the data. The major teaching techniques revealed from the data analysis were interactive technique, guided practice, and play method along with total communication. The rare use of hearing aids by the students, the number of students in one class, and less cooperation of parents were major problems highlighted by the teachers. Recommendations were given to the teachers of young children with hearing impairment and their concerned department.
Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Hearing Impairment, Language, Skills.

Gender Mainstreaming in Education: An Overview of Educational Policies of Pakistan

Since the beginning of human life on the planet, women had been working with men for survival. Both were standing in every walk of life. With the auxiliary life on the earth, men had achieved their key role in the society because of the concept of fatherhood in human race. Before that the races were known with the name of mothers i.e. matrilineal. Later on, because of the strong build of men, women became on the disposal of their men. The women were then considered as inferior. And this inferiority turns into the discrimination in patriarchal societies. Either it is day to day behaviors or policy or administrative matters, women are considered as the mediocre and are not as focused as males for social policies. In Pakistan, gender reforms are more witnessed in education sector as compared to other policies. In this context present study was aimed at exploring the gender sensitivity of education policies of Pakistan in different eras since 1947 and was intended to document some analytical observation regarding gender discrimination in policies. For the sake of this study, analytical analysis of educational policies was conducted. On the basis of analysis, this study was able to jot down the gender sensitivity of educational policies in Pakistan.
Keywords: Gender Mainstreaming, Education, Policies.

Examining the Portrayal of a Muslim Woman in Ayisha Malik’s Novel “Sofia Khan is not obliged” from Orientalist Perspective

The present paper discusses Ayisha Malik’s Sofia Khan is not obliged. This is a debut novel by the author published in 2015. The story revolves around a Muslim girl named Sofia, living in London city with her family; hence it gives fine narrative of how a Muslim experiences in London. The study discusses how the novel responds to the western concept of Muslim women. As in the popular narrative a Muslim woman is viewed as docile, meek and submissive. The study explores how far that popular notion is accurate or the opposite. Hence to conduct this kind of reading of Sofia Khan is not obliged, theoretical framework of Orientalism is chosen. As discussed in Orientalism by Edward said East has maintained certain assumptions of West which view East particularly Islamic world as barbaric, uncivilized, and dangerous. “Orientalism carries within it the stamp of a problematic European attitude towards Islam. As data in the study is text hence the method of research is textual analysis. The study finds that Sofia defies the western notion of Muslim women being confident, independent authoritative, and assertive.
Keywords: Ayisha Malik, Sofia Khan is not obliged, Edward Said, Orientalism.

Adult Attachment and Fear of Intimacy among Adolescents: Moderating Role of Social Anxiety

This correlational study designed to explore the role of social anxiety as a moderator in the relationship between adult attachment and fear of intimacy among adolescents. Another purpose was to inspect the contribution of sociodemographic variables in adult attachment, fear of intimacy and social anxiety. Data collection was done by using purposive sampling technique. A sample consisted of (N = 420) adolescents’ boys (n = 210) and girls (n = 210), early adolescents (n = 140), middle adolescents (n = 140) and late adolescents (n = 140). For such purpose data were collected from different schools and colleges and also from the University of Sargodha. Data were collected by using Adult Attachment Scale (AAS), fear of intimacy scale (FIS) and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Results revealed that a significant relationship was present between adult attachment and fear of intimacy among adolescents. Results depicted that there was a significant negative correlation between adult attachment and fear of intimacy. Findings also showed that social anxiety significantly moderated the relationship between adult attachment and fear of intimacy among adolescents. Results indicated that girls score higher on adult attachment than boys, whereas, boys score higher on fear of intimacy and social anxiety. Based on these findings adolescents who owned secure attachment patterns have less fear of intimacy and less social anxiety caused in them while those who have avoidant or insecure patterns will be at higher risk of social anxiety and lack intimate relationships.
Keywords: Adolescents, Adult attachment, Attachment Styles, Fear of Intimacy, Social Anxiety, Sargodha.

Perception of Physical Education Students regarding Online Physical Education Classes and Its Influence on Academic Performance

This research study was conducted for the purpose to access the perception of Physical Education Students regarding Online Physical Education Classes and Its Influence on their Academic Performance. Population of this study was comprised of Physical Education Students enrolled in the University of the Punjab Lahore Pakistan. Two hundred students were taken as a sample of the study by using available sample technique. For the collection of data, a self-made research questionnaire was developed by the researcher. The data were collected personally by the researcher from the whole respondents and thus the collected data were tabulated and were analyzed by using different statistical tools. Based on analysis, the researcher concluded that online physical education classes negatively influence the academic performance of the students in term of theoretical and practical knowledge.
Keywords: Physical Education, Students, Online Classes, Academic Performance.

Pakistani Speculative Fiction: Origins, Contestations, Horizons

This survey paper examines the evolving trends in contemporary Pakistani speculative fiction which brings together tropes and motifs from imaginative worlds of local folklores as well as Islamic mythical worlds of South Asian civilization. We particularly discuss the ways in which, by adapting extra-terrestrial life forms, mythological tropes and themes from the Urdu popular genre tradition, Pakistani anglophone writers bring to the fore the greater potential of the speculative genre in responding to more contemporary problems associated with patriarchy, fundamentalism, gender issues, neo-colonialism, marginalization, racism, war technology and anxieties associated with emergent forms of nationalism. This paper specifically engages with Pakistani anglophone speculative fiction which is explicitly in conversation with Urdu science fiction and fantasy tradition, and in so doing these works create new worlds of indigenous cultures as vibrant and resistant yet firmly fixed in both myth and alternate futures. Our survey of a long-standing fascination of Pakistani anglophone writers with some local tropes that refigure in their speculative fiction shows how these non-western speculative paradigms can serve to re-centre and revive Pakistani speculative tradition in the global popular culture.
Keywords: Pakistani Anglophone Speculative Genre, Urdu Popular Literature, Fantasy, Science Fiction, Islamic Civilization, Djinns, Mythology.
AROOSA KANWAL and ASMA MANSOOR 244-251 Download(10)

Analyzing the Reasons of Mathematical Anxiety and its Impact on Academic Achievement of Students: A Case of Public University of Sindh

This study aims to explore the reasons for mathematical anxiety among the upper region students of a public university (in Sindh, Pakistan) which leads to a decrease in their academic performance. This study utilized a mixed-method approach. Whereas, the purpose of mix method case study was twofold: quantitative to select the participants of upper region of Sindh, who awarded "F" grade. in qualitative phase, in-dept interview were collected from eight participates to analyze the reasons for mathematical anxiety and how that anxiety affects students' achievements. Combined data analysis revealed five reasons: Teacher behavior, Context delivery, Poor background, fear of failure and linguistic gap are the main reasons to create mathematical anxiety among students. However, these identified factors can decrease a student's performance and CGPA. So, this study would help students who have elected mathematics subjects at graduation level and teachers to decrease anxiety among students by keeping in mind these factors.
Keywords: Anxiety, Mathematics, Students, Achievements, Numbers.

Impact of Decision-Making Styles on Conflict Management Styles of University Students

It was an empirical instigation to establish the prediction of conflict management styles through decision styles. Two standardized scales were administered on 300 full time university students. The data analysis was caried out using multiple regression which confirms that hypotheses anticipating that the selection of the conflict handling styles stems from the underlying decision styles or the way students make decisions they also manage their disputes in the similar way, because managing a conflict by using an appropriate is also a superlative decisive action. Thus, the students using specific decision-making styles predicted specific conflict management styles. Managing a conflict in a given situation is a high-quality decision. The findings revealed that the students who used inappropriate decision-making styles also predicted negative conflict management styles and vice versa. The study can be used by decision scientists, student counselors and university students to understand the role of decisional choices on the subsequent conflict management styles adopted by students. Improvement in the decision making of students will also contributes in the improvement in conflict handling.
Keywords: Decision Styles, Conflict Handling Styles, Students.

Framing of US in Pakistani English Newspapers during Drone Strikes: A Content Analysis of Dawn and The Nation

The core objective of the current research was to analyze recurrent frames used by Pakistani English language newspapers to present US during drone strikes. For this purpose Editorials of Dawn and The Nation published from 1st March 2011 till 31st March 2013 having terms "drone" "pilotless air craft" and “unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were analyzed. A census study of 168 editorials was conducted. Quantitative content analysis was used as the research design. Ten categories were constructed by conducting a rigorous literature review of the past research. The results depicted that Pakistani print media strongly criticized US on her polices of drone attacks in tribal area of Pakistan. Both selected newspapers gave 62.2% negative coverage to US on different issues but comparatively The Nation gave more negative coverage to US than Dawn. On the contrary 26.7% editorials had favorable, and 11.1% had neutral coverage. The results showed that although both newspapers have differing approach to cover the issue of drone Dawn and consider drone strikes against the sovereignty of Pakistan but The Nation showed a greater concern over drone strikes.
Keywords: US Image, Framing, Drone strikes, Pakistani Newspapers.

Direct and Indirect Effect of HRM Practices on Job Performance in Industrial Units

Present study examined the mediating role of fit perceptions between perceived of human resource management practices and job performance among industrial workers. Purposive sample comprised of workers of textile industries from Faisalabad division (N = 300). Human Resource Management Policy and Practices Scale by Demo, Neiva, Nunes, and Rozzett (2012), Fit Perception Scale by Kennedy (2005) and In-Role Job Performance Scale by Williams and Anderson (1991) were used in the study. Statistical analysis revealed that all variables were correlated in the expected directions. Person-job fit mediated between recruitment, training and development, and work condition with job performance, person-vocational fit mediated between training and development with job performance, and person-organization fit meditated the relation of involvement, training and development, work condition, performance appraisal, and reward with job performance. Finally, implications of these results and limitations of the study were discussed in line with the literature and suggestions for future studies were reflected upon.
Keywords: HR Practices, Person Job-Fit, Organization-Fit, Vocation-Fit, In-Role Job Performance.

Validation of Technology Acceptance Model for teaching English as a Foreign Language

The use of information technology has brought about a great improvement in the field of teaching and learning English which enables the users to study independently, and get instant feedback and correction. The purpose of this study was to explore the teacher’s attitude toward the use of information technology in learning English as a foreign language (EFL) through Technology acceptance model (TAM). The quantitative research design was used to achieve the objective of the study. A sample of 100 English language teachers was selected through multistage sampling technique. The TAM model was validated by using hierarchical regression analysis. The results showed perceived ease of using IT mediated through perceived usefulness of IT in teaching EFL significantly affect the attitude towards IT in teaching EFL (Total effect = 0.357, p < 0.001). However, the direct effect of perceived ease of use was found non-significant in this mediation. Government, institutions, and language labs should be developed properly in public universities so that students may learn to operate technological tools for their assistance in teaching EFL.
Keywords: Information Technology, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, University Teachers.

COVID -19 Spate Strike on Socioeconomic Comforts in Pakistan and Future Prospects

The advanced world traumatized by the newfangled spate virus ―COVID-19‖that has defunct from China, and later named as SARS-CoV-2 .The very first case was being reported in December 2019 at Wuhan city. Shortly it has spread across the world with destructive impacts on human security concerns in various countries. The widespread grave conditions have changed the comforts of citizens, mostly in affected areas. The study has found out that to what extent the COVID-19 has affected the socioeconomic comforts of the people in developing Pakistan? And what policy measures required for curtailing the COVID-19 thwarts on the socioeconomic conditions of a common man in Pakistan? The findings, based on secondary available sources have revealed that the majority of the citizens are facing endure economic inflation, so it stipulates the circumstances to set a quantity of quality measures to deal with the existing pandemic outbreak. Effective sound policies with sturdy execution can only assist to perk up the current economic and social devastation.
Keywords: COVID-19, Pandemic, Economic inflation, Socioeconomic, Governance.

Practicing Three Core Precepts of Dogme ELT to Develop L2 Academic Writing Skills

People learn foreign languages for different purposes and needs, and the language experts make their genuine efforts to innovate different teaching approaches and methods to make the learning process easier. Among these methodological innovations worldwide, Dogme teaching approach is a new one with its unique teaching precepts in unplugged ESL and EFL classes. This research concentrates on highlighting the impacts of applying the three basic principles of Dogme teaching approach to polish up the learners’ academic writing skills. Data was collected from the teacher’s notes that he organized in three groups according to these three principles after going through his class observations, problems and difficulties during a Dome ELT treatment program. Data was categorized and analyzed qualitatively to record the findings and results of the study. The results of applying the three core precepts to develop writing skills prove that these precepts can be applied to develop writing skills. Each of these precepts has its own pedagogical value to develop some specific language areas of writing skills, and it can be used for different teaching purposes. This study discussed these precepts describing their pros and cons for learning outcomes in academic writing classes and fill the research gaps.
Keywords: Core Precepts of Dogme ELT, L2 Academic Writing, Pedagogical Implications.

A Follow up Study for Inclusion of Students with Visual Impairment in Regular Schools of the Punjab

The main purpose of the study was to review the efforts made by Government of the Punjab for the inclusion of students with visual impairment in the regular schools of the Punjab, by taking the views of students with visual impairment who are studying in inclusive schools and their concerned teachers. A quantitative approach was used to conduct the study. The type of research was descriptive .The population of the study consisted of all teachers and students with visual impairment studying in inclusive schools of the Punjab. A total number of 152 students with visual impairment (N=152) by using convenient and teachers teaching in inclusive schools (N=110) by using random sampling technique were taken as a sample of the study. We used two different close ended questionnaires, comprising dichotomous (Yes, No.) items. In addition to demographic information, the questionnaires consisted of eight domains related to the students and teachers’ views about the inclusive education schools. The reliability of the instruments was estimated as 0.87and 0.86 (Cronbach Alpha), whereas the content validity was estimated by taking the opinions of experts from the field of special and inclusive education. The IBM version 20 was used for the data analysis. Frequency of the responses along with their percentages was calculated. Majority of the teachers teaching in inclusive education have shown their concerns regarding lack of training to deal the students with visual impairment, strategies to adapt curriculum, provision of latest teaching technology and lack of extrinsic motivation by school administration. Majority of the students with visual impairment who were placed in regular schools highlighted unavailability of adapted material, lack of supportive services and facilities, guidance and counselling, lack of medical facility and unavailability of adapted curriculum as deficient areas of their schools. Majority ratio of teachers and students had positive opinions about inclusive education. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations were given to the stakeholders.
Keywords: Inclusion, Visual impairment, Teachers, Regular Schools, Services & Facilities.

Consciousness of Freedom, Civic Empowerment and Social Responsibility among University Students in Pakistan

Major aim of the critical pedagogy is to promote consciousness of freedom, civic empowerment and social responsibility among the students. Education system in Pakistan strengthens its foundations on a dominant religious ideology. The political history of the country reveals constitutional and un-constitutional interferences of several pressure groups in education related decisions. The scientific and liberal norms, resultantly, could not root in the higher education institutions of the country. The current inquiry investigates outcomes of the higher education system analyzing the prevalence of consciousness of freedom, civic empowerment and social responsibility among the university students in Pakistan. A sample of 800 university students was selected from four public sector universities studying in different under-graduate and post-graduate programs. A self-reported questionnaire based on different indicators of consciousness of freedom, civic empowerment and social responsibility was developed to gather data from the selected sample through multi-phase sampling techniques. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings demonstrate that the university students assume they are free, empowered and socially responsible. They however are unaware of the many social and cultural factors which diminish their liberties and empowerment and shape their sense of social responsibilities.
Keywords: Social Ethics, Citizenship, Religion, Human Rights.

Media, Public Opinion and Foreign Policy; An Exploratory Study of Pakistan U.S. Relations

Media has played a vital role in shaping the bilateral relations between Pakistan and the U.S. The U.S. media has a global presence and it has been used as a tool of U.S. foreign policy to determine the asymmetric nature of bilateral relationships. Despite different approaches of Democrats and Republicans towards Pakistan in the last two administrations, the U.S. media has only kept the hard issue alive leaving less space for positive trends to promote good relations. In comparison, Pakistan’s media influence is limited to domestic circles only and has not been able to produce tangible results in shaping the U.S. public opinion leading to a change of mindset in the U.S. policy circles. This paper will explore what circumstances have led to the U.S. ascendency in the Pak-U.S. bilateral relations leaving limited scope for Pakistan to maneuver in the foreign policy domain by using national media as a foreign policy tool.
Keywords: Public Opinion, Foreign Policy, Policy Circles, Fake News.

A Stylistic Analysis of A Village Morning: A Poem by Daud Kamal

This work identifies stylistic devices - foregrounding, deviation, levels of language and other poetic devices - used in the poem, A Village Morning by Daud Kamal. The aim of this article is to explore the main idea attached to the poem. Here the researcher attempts to bring forth the hidden meanings fixed to each word and sentence of the poem. It investigates all those elements in the text that bring forth the entire picture to the surface. Furthermore, this research work is purely based on stylistic analysis which buttresses the researcher to identify the style of the poet through the text. In a nutshell, this article addresses the question that how to analyze a poem stylistically to get the concrete idea and style embedded throughout in the poem.
Keywords: Stylistic Analysis, Daud Kamal, Graphology, Phonological Level, Syntactical Level.

Purdah, Mobility and Educational Opportunities for Women

This paper highlights the multiplicity of women‟s views on purdah, mobility and educational attainment. Based on qualitative research in a small village, Chah Munshi Wala, in Multan district it highlights how women exhibit agency from within patriarchal constraints. In this they make use of religious rhetoric on purdah as well as the obligatory nature of education for all Muslim women and men. Purdah observance ensures the possibility to move out into the public space with relative freedom easing obstacles in the path of educational attainment. In conclusion the paper calls for viewing these women and their support for purdah within the context of their particular social positioning and not dismiss it as an internalization of patriarchal norms.
Keywords: Pakistani Women, Purdah, Educational Attainment, Agency of Muslim Women.

Gender and Entrepreneurship: Women’s Choice for Self-Employment

Based on qualitative research this paper sets out to explain factors behind women’s choice for entrepreneurship within patriarchal social system. Selected through purposive sampling, 23 female entrepreneurs were interviewed using open ended questionnaire. Falling under the category of “forced entrepreneurs”, all the respondents were driven out of compulsive circumstances to establish their own private enterprise. Whether primary or supplementary, women’s work in the public sphere was articulated as an extension of their traditionally approved gender role. This greatly convened their choice for self-employment. Support of husband, children’s well-being, future security, respect and dignity in work, emerge as major push factors. The narratives of their lived experiences also hint at women’s sense of agency, autonomy and self-actualization derived from their work. The research helps to arrive a better understanding of female entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Gender, Entrepreneurship, Women, Self-Employment.

Primary School Students’ Achievement under Continuous Professional Development Framework

This study was designed to explore the extent to which primary school students’ performance improved because of the continuous professional development program. Moreover, to take a holistic and in-depth picture of the students’ achievement the study also investigated the factors that affect students’ performance and explored measures to improve the performance. To address the first objective secondary data of 5th-grade students’ annual examination achievement score of five years (2011-12 to 2015-16) was used. The second objective was addressed through semi-structured interviews of 32 primary school teachers. Secondary data has been analyzed by calculating mean and qualitative data has been analyzed through content analysis. The study is descriptive and exploratory. The overall achievement of the students in all subjects remained poor except Islamiyat. Students got the highest marks (very good level) in Islamyat and lowest marks (fair level) in the subject of science. The students’ achievement score in the subjects of English, Urdu, and Mathematics was also a fair level but it was slightly better than Science. It can be inferred from these findings that mentors did not perform their responsibilities appropriately under the CPD framework to enhance students’ learning. Moreover, it is found that the major reasons for students’ undesirable performance are multi-grade teaching, non-cooperation of parents, poverty, absenteeism, and non-availability of textbooks on time. Data suggests that there is a need to appoint qualified teachers, make sure the availability of finance to purchase teaching/learning material, control the students’ absenteeism, and make sure parents and community involvement to improve students’ performance.
Keywords: CPD Framework, Student’s Achievement, Primary School Context.

Classroom Management Strategies of Teachers: An Empirical Evidence of Secondary School

The study was carried out to identify teachers’ perception of Classroom Management Strategies (CMS), and to explore how often teachers use different CMS. Researchers used descriptive research design of quantitative approach while cross-sectional survey method was used to collect data from 300 participants which were selected randomly. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers and administrated personally. Validity was made sure by educational experts while Cronbach’s Alpha of the questionnaire was 0.840. Data were analyzed by using different descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Analysis of teachers’ perceptions demonstrated that response to class disruption and classroom rules management strategies are frequently used. It is concluded that there was a significant difference in male and female secondary school teachers’ opinions regarding the frequently used different CMS. While there was an insignificant difference in public and private sector secondary school teachers’ perceptions about the frequently used different CMS. It is recommended that teachers should set classroom rules in collaboration with students to manage students’ behavior.
Keywords: Classroom Management, Management Strategies, Secondary Level.

Metaphors of Love in English and Khowar: A Cross Cultural Linguistics Study

The study is cross-linguistics research based on the analysis of linguistic data from English and Khowar to explore the similarities and differences between these two different languages in Journey Metaphre of Love. The qualitative content analysis was used as a method. The Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) was adopted as a model for comparison to explore the cultural characteristics. The findings illustrated the metaphorical expressions, which seemed to be significantly similar. It may be due to the universally shared understanding. On the other hand, a very minute difference was noticed, it might be due to cultural embodiment. Thus, a conclusion was drawn that Khowar language like the English has an organic and living existence.
Keywords: Journey, Metaphor, Love, Culture, English and Khowar.

A Sociological Study of Personal Hygiene among Primary School Children Living in Slum Areas of Jaranwala

Personal hygiene plays an important role in preventing infectious diseases especially in children. In developing countries like Pakistan, the burden of transmittable diseases is high among school children particularly in urban slums and rural areas. Keeping in view one of the major cause of death among children due to poor personal hygienic condition, a study was conducted in Tehsil Jaranwala. Respondents were the primary school children; those were selected by using multi stage random sampling technique. Respondents were found with poor knowledge about different practices of personal hygiene. Findings of this study show that majority children were not agree that being neat and clean keeps the person healthy. Most of the students were found with irregular teeth-brush habits and shower, and dirty nails biting. In addition, it was investigated that lack of proper resources, i.e. soap and water, as well as inadequate sanitation facilities in a slum community schools with low socio-economic condition may negatively affect personal hygiene practices in tehsil Jaranwala. Findings of this study recommends there is need for the government, teachers and head teachers to sensitize school children more about cleanliness culture, which can encourage them for using toilets, regular washing hands and bathing.
Keywords: Hygienic Conditions, Slums, Health.

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