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Academy Publication Ethics

Academy of IRMBR Volume  8, August, 2020
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Gender Discrimination: Evidence from Developing Countries

The roots of gender biasness instigate from the birth of child in developing and underdeveloped world. The research article focuses on the causes of the gender discrimination in the developing countries where the situation in different Asian regions and other countries of the world have been observed critically to draw a road map to be out of this tragic phenomenon. Understanding the root cause is the fundamental step before moving towards the eradication of problem. It has been concluded from all debates that the elimination of the gender discrimination tends to require the policy intervention but somehow, it is considered to be affiliated with the poverty as the high economic growth rates provides an automatic relief from this biasedness. The initial progressive approach in this regard is application of legal initiatives for the women in the respective institutions of the state. The other way for gender empowerment is to equip the women with financial resources as well. This article will be helpful in formulation of policies related to gender discrimination as well as in dealing with the challenges during implementation of these policies.
Keywords: Gender Discrimination, Gender Empowerment, Policy Interventions, Economic Stability.
AFSHEEN ZEESHAN 1-8 Download(68)

Abrogation of Articles 370 & 35A of the Indian Constitution: Implications for Peace in South Asia

The state of Jammu and Kashmir has been the root cause of confrontation between India and Pakistan since 1947. Both the countries, now nuclear powers, have already fought wars in 1948, 1965, and 1971 as well as faced Kargil Conflict in 1999 on Kashmir problem. Violating the UN Security Council’s resolutions and Shimla Agreement, India has now annexed its occupied area of Jammu and Kashmir on 5th August 2019 by abrogating article 370 and 35A of the Indian Constitution. Without keeping in mind sensitivities attached to this critical issue, Indian unilateral action has aggravated an already tense environment in South Asia. If the Kashmir problem is not addressed timely, it may initiate another war between the nuclear rival countries Pakistan and India and this would not only destabilize the region but also spiral up to the world.
Keywords: Kashmir Dispute, Annexation, Lockdown, Freedom Movement, Nuclear War Threat.

Workplace Incivility and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Role of Burnout and Islamic Work Ethics

Based on the conservation of resource theory, the current study aimed to investigate the mediating role of burnout between workplace incivility and Organization Citizenship Behavior. Moreover, the moderating role of Islamic Work Ethics has also been explored. Adopting time-lagged and multi-sources data collection approach, data (N=362) was collected through questionnaires from the employees of different organizations in Pakistan. Results supported the partial mediating role of Burnout. Moreover, the combined effect of incivility and IWE mitigated the strength of incivility on OCB. Considering IWE as resource, the managers would help employees to show higher degree of discretionary behavior.
Keywords: Burnout, Incivility, Islamic Work Ethics, OCB.

Students Satisfaction, Preparedness and Engagements towards COVID-19 Emergency Online Learning

Online learning is a widely concerning format of education during the COVID-19 pandemic as all the educational institutes are closed in this pandemic without stopping learning. The current study investigates the university students’ readiness, and engagement in online learning with a satisfactory level. A quantitative method with an online survey design was selected by the researchers. Two-hundred seventy-six university students had randomly participated in this study. The data were collected through the self-made questionnaire on students’ satisfaction, Online students’ engagement scale (OSE) by Dixson (2015), and Online Learning Readiness Scale (OLRS) by Hung et al. (2010). The findings of this study demonstrated that the students were less satisfied with their online learning mode of education. It is evident that their low level of satisfaction with services and module of online learning affects their participation. On the other hand, a strong association was found between students’ readiness and their engagement.
Keywords: COVID-19, Higher Education, Online Learning, Readiness, Engagement.

A Panel Data Investigation of Greenfield Investment on the Welfare of African Developing Countries

In the literature researchers examined the impact of foreign direct investment on growth and development of African developing countries but ignored the relationship of Greenfield investment and socioeconomic development including education, health and economic growth. African developing countries are abundant of natural resources and cheap labor and are considered as the attractive places for investment. This study make an attempt of balanced panel data set of a sample of 31 African developing countries on a time period of 1998-2017 using GMM technique. The study used HDI as proxy for socioeconomic development including education index, health index and income index as proxies for education, health and economic growth. After checking the Stationarity, the results of this study revealed that Greenfield-FDI has statistically significant and positive impact on education, health, economic growth and socioeconomic development of African developing countries. The study further found that controlled variables remittances and foreign aid has positive and negative relationship with all dependent variables respectively. Other controlled variables i.e. trade openness, population and inflation have mixed results. This study suggested on the basis of its findings that governments must focus on the economic and business policies to attract more foreign investment. The government should make safe friendly business environment for the multinational companies to accommodate cheap labor force of their own countries.
Keywords: African Developing Countries, Greenfield-FDI, GMM.

Validation of the Urdu Translation of New Indices of Religious Orientation Revised (NIROR) on the Three Samples of Secondary School Students in Pakistan

Various measures are used to assess the prevalence of different religious dimensions in variety of participants. Purpose of this study was to assess the Urdu translation of the New Indices of Religious Orientation Revised (NIROR) on the samples of Christian, Hindu and Muslim secondary school students in Pakistan. Three groups of participants comprising Christian (n=371), Hindu (n=505) and Muslim (n=624) secondary school students studying government approved curricula participated in the study. The Urdu translation of the NIROR was used to collect the data. Confirmatory factor analysis was run to assess the validity of the structural model of the NIROR. Results confirm the fitness of structural model of the NIROR. The study supports the use of Urdu translation of the NIROR on Pakistani samples of Christian, Hindu, and Muslim secondary school students.
Keywords: School, Students, Religiosity, Validity, Pakistan.

Students’ Perception of Formative Assessment at Higher Education Level

In the very important instruction and assessment process, high quality learning can only be facilitated by high quality assessment, which equips the learners with competencies for their future workplaces. Thus, it is important to know what competencies we value and how best to measure and promote for future workplace of our learner. It is the Formative assessments carried out during class interaction for the purpose of improvement in student learning and to meet their needs. Looking into the lack of quality of conventional assessment and rote memorization even at university level in Pakistan, the study was designed to investigate the perception of students especially the science students regarding formative assessment. An instrument constituting of six factors on four-point Likert scale was used to collect data from 428 students across three departments (Chemistry, Mathematic and Biology) from ten universities (public & private) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province - Pakistan. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA for comparing means. Based on percent responses of the students’ perception of assessment task, selective formative assessment strategies and less feedback have limited the capabilities of students.
Keywords: Students’ Perception of Assessment, Higher Education, Formative Assessment, Authenticity of Assessment, Self-regulated Learning, On-going assessment.

Effect of Research Culture on Publication Rate: Comparison of a Private and a Public Pakistani Universities

This research aims to explore the effect of three factors including support from university, teaching schedule, and research team (independent variables) on the research publication rate (dependent variable) in a public and a private sector university of Lahore, Pakistan. The study is carried out through adopting the mixed methods approach therefore it employed pragmatism paradigm. The population comprises on 986 faculty members from both the universities, out of which 400 (200 from each selected university) for quantitative data collection and eight (four from each selected university) senior faculty members for qualitative data generation were selected. The selection of universities and faculty members was done purposively and conveniently. Structured questionnaire has been used to collect the quantitative data and semi-structured interview protocol has been used to generate qualitative data. Publication record from both the universities has also been obtained to compare the publication rate. Quantitative data has been analyzed through the use of multiple regression technique, in order to draw main messages from interview transcripts thematic analysis has been used and document analysis was done to compare the research publication rate of selected universities. Results of the quantitative data highlight that in both the universities there is statistically significant relationship between three independent variables including support from university, teaching schedule and research team, and the dependent variable that is research publication rate. The findings of the study from both the data sets indicate that the three factors (support from university, teaching schedule, and research team) taken as independent variables have significant effect on the research publication rate taken as dependent variable. Findings from qualitative data reveal that faculty members expect support from the university management through reducing their teaching workload, developing research teams, and providing infrastructure, research facilities and finance for their research activities. Overall the private sector university has stronger research culture than the public sector university in Pakistan.
Keywords: Research Culture, Support from University, Teaching Schedule, Research Teams, Research Publication Rate.

Emergence of Nuclear Zero in South Asia: Prospects for Regional Stability

Global Zero is a campaign at international level to ensure the world free of nuclear weapons. The Global Zero Action Plan calls for the two superpowers in the race of nuclear weapons i.e. Russia and The United States to negotiate to cut down their nuclear armaments as much as possible in the first stage followed by complete denuclearization of the world by 2030. Some people are of the belief that the present nuclear powers can trigger nuclear war at any time but the nuclear powers do realize the implications of such act and they have refrained from such act until today. Since 1945, there have been eight (possibly) new nuclear states and all of them are hostile to each other that includes rivals like Britain and France; India and Pakistan; India and China and most importantly Russia against USA but still there is not a single incident when any of these states used nuclear weapons against each other rather they have been avoiding war as far as possible. South Asia is considered the most probable nuclear flash point in the world as three arch rivals Pakistan, Indian, and China dwells there. Since these countries acquired nuclear capabilities, there is no incident of war in spite of many times coming face to face, such as it is only the danger of nuclear weapons which halted the wars between India and Pakistan in 2001, 2008 and recently in 2019. Besides, complete elimination of nuclear weapons will make the world free for conventional wars, and once the conventional wars become more probable, there will be more chances for re-development and use of nuclear weapons. To crown all, it can be said that complete elimination of nuclear weapons will make its use more certain.
Keywords: South Asia, Nuclear Zero, Regional Stability, Nuclear Peace Theory, Minimum Credible Deterrence.

Twitter’s Role in Inter Media Agenda Setting on Political Issues of Pakistan

Present study explores intermedia agenda setting on political issues of Pakistan. Three Pakistani English dailies (print media) and Twitter (Social Media) is selected for the study. Data from selected newspapers has been collected using keywords search method from Lexis Nexis and data from Twitter has been collected using APIs. A codebook was created to measure the frequency of topics receiving attention both in print and social media. YoshiKoder software was used to set up content categories. Computer assisted content analysis was performed to test intermedia agenda-setting using one day time lag. Data has been analyzed using cross-lagged correlation and Rozelle-Campbell baseline formula to establish a causal direction in the intermedia agenda-setting. Findings reveal that issue frequencies over twitter and newspapers are highly correlated. Twitter top trends received significant attention in the next day’s print media papers. Cross-lagged correlation results of The News International (r=0.896), The Nation (r=0.876), and Express Tribune (r=0.836) validated study’s hypothesis, “It is more likely that there is a significant correlation between Social Media Agenda and Traditional Print Media Agenda with a time lag of one day.” Examination of Twitter posts has revealed that a significant number of Twitter posts are direct replication of newspaper stories and/or video footage from TV channels. Similarly, more and more news reporters, anchors, writers, columnists, and independent journalists are using Twitter to discuss exclusive stories. Politicians use Twitter as their major connection point for both public and media. Tweets are flashed as breaking news on channels and reported prominently on newspapers, and the same published news stories and footage become tweets.
Keywords: Intermedia Agenda Setting, Social Media Agenda, Twitter Agenda.
ABDUL REHMAN QAISAR and SAQIB RIAZ 93-106 Download(50)

Modern ELT Approaches: Practices and Challenges of Higher Secondary School English Language Teachers in Karachi, Pakistan

The basic purpose of this research study was to explore the top ELT approaches recommended by the linguists and adopted by the English language teachers teaching English at intermediate or Higher Secondary School level in Karachi. To solve the query both quantitative and qualitative approaches were developed. Initially literature was reviewed to select the top ten approaches followed/adopted worldwide, then a questionnaire having 07 close-ended and 03 open-ended questions was distributed among the higher secondary school English language teachers to collect the required data. The data analysis reveals that approaches like Direct, Communicative, and Total Physical Response are somehow similar as importance is given to basic language skills (listening & speaking), availability of stress-free environment for the learners, and reject the cramming of grammar rules. Still teachers in Karachi follow the Grammar-Translation approach because of several reasons they find it difficult to implement new approaches in their classrooms.
Keywords: ELT Approaches, Teachers and Higher Secondary Level.

Exploring the Shaded Positioning of Feminism and Dismantling Threads of Patriarchy in Hidden Culture Presented in Lousie Brown’s The Dancing Girls of Lahore and Fouzia Saeed’s Taboo

This research is a study of two selected anthropological works, Taboo (2001) by Fouzia Saeed and The Dancing Girls of Lahore (2005) by Lousie Brown. It focusses on the sensitive issues as fortified by the two writers. The location of Pakistani city Lahore and its culture have inspired the writers to address these issues along with the theme of hidden culture and red-light area. Both female writers have observed this taboo culture through their own cultural and ideological perspectives. Multi modeled feminist theoretical framework helps to reveal the shaded positioning of females in patriarchal societies, feminine characteristics, and variations from culture to culture. This research is qualitative in nature and explores the feminist aspects of two selected anthropological texts. Difference level of language usage, expressions, and thoughts have remained in primary focus during the comparative analysis of the selected texts. It helps to find the areas where to make immediate reforms to help the oppressed and suppressed class of women on practical grounds. Most importantly, this research presents a balanced picture of the issues related to women in Pakistani society without taking sides and the influence of the East or West in a truly comparative perspective.
Keywords: Red Light Area, Hidden Culture, Prostitution, Violence, Oppression, Islam, Pakistan.

A Feminine Encounter of Power

The fairy tales are supposed to be tales of fantasy and imagination, with a happily ever after. But several grim disguised aspects are also interlocked in main themes. Mostly interwoven in hegemony power acts are the cloaked counter hegemony actions that occur side by side. The fairy tales transmit power ideologies in everyday scenario, unlike any magnificent magnitude, which are constantly countered through implicit and explicit endeavors of the characters. These everyday counter hegemony acts may seem trivial, but they possess the capacity to transform a character. Thus, the study uses the theoretical framework proposed by Gramsci (1971) to evaluate the counter hegemony acts of characters against power and hegemony. The characters of Golilocks, Trollbella and Alex Bailey, from Colfer’s (2013) The Wishing Spell are thematically analyzed. The findings reveal that counter hegemony could occur at a personal level against everyday hegemony that might cause hindrances to a person’s potential of action, growth and contentment. The counter acts against power found in the text were not politically initiated under an organized leadership. However, the findings also reveal that the counter hegemony acts lead towards establishment of a new power status on a different level. Furthermore, this process could be scrutinized as a sign of continuity in life.
Keywords: Fairy Tales, Hegemony, Counter Hegemony, Characters.

Usefulness of Assessment Practices in Teacher Education Institutions

This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of assessment practices at teacher education institutions. Focus of the study was to find out major problems of assessment practices and identifying the opinion of students in these institutions. Keeping in view the nature of the study, survey method considered suitable and used to collect the data from required sample. After reviewing literature, a questionnaire was developed. It included two open ended questions and twenty seven closed ended questions which were asked on five point scale i.e. “To little or no extent” to “to a great extent”. Data was collected from Department of Education Government S.E College Bahawalpur and Government Sadiq Women University Bahawalpur. The purpose of questionnaire was to obtain systematically and objectively the sample’s opinions about effectiveness of assessment practice at teacher education institutions of Bahawalpur district. Frequencies, percentages and means of responses were calculated. Students gave positive opinion about effectiveness of assessment practices. It reveals from the data that as compared to female students, male students’ opinion were more positive about overall assessment practices in teacher education institutions in Bahawalpur. Data shows that students faced different problems during assessment process. This study recommends students assessment through co-curricular activities along with curricular activities whereas an equal weightage may be considered to oral and written assignments for better results of the students. The same study may be extended to different cities of the country.
Keywords: Assessment, Practices, Teacher Education Institutions, Bahawalpur, Punjab.

Effects of Breaking News on the Quality of Pakistani Television News: A Journalistic Perspective

The study explores the “Effects of breaking news on the quality of Pakistani television news; A Journalistic Perspective.” With the passage of time, viewers have become more interested in news, what is trending and what is breaking. The importance of breaking news has been increased as every channel wants to be the first to break the news and fill the time of 24-hours with numerous news stories. Breaking news stories varies from social, political and other significant issues which the viewers view every single day. This research examines the journalistic approach to the breaking news stories and what effect does it have on the quality of news coverage of channels of Pakistan. The questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The universe of study was Lahore and the journalists from different news channels were the population. Correlation statistical analysis was applied for testing hypothesis and findings which revealed that breaking news stories have a pessimistic effect on the eminence of Pakistani television news.
Keywords: Breaking News, Quality, Effect.

Relationship of Social and Ecological Drawbacks with Sports Participation of Female Athletes in Pakistan

The purpose of the present research was to examine the relationships of social and ecological drawbacks with sports participation of female athletes of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The study approach was quantitative in nature. Survey questionnaire was employed to collect the survey data. Population was considered all female athletes of college level belonging to Southern Punjab, Pakistan. A sample size of 500 female athletes belonging to intermediate and degree colleges of 13 Districts chosen for data collection applying simple random sampling. The data was analyzed through descriptive statistics and inferential (correlations) analysis. The results of the existing study revealed that the association between sub-domains of social drawbacks and sports participation of female athletes were found positive and significant. The findings indicated that ecological drawbacks (dress and gender differences) had negative and significant associations with female athletes’ sports participation. It was concluded that if specific dress developed for Muslim female athletes, they may enhance their interest in sports participation and manage their time for sports. There is need to minimize the gender differences providing female equal opportunities in the field of sports and other discipline as well so that they may not understand themselves inferiors than males.
Keywords: Social and Ecological Drawbacks, Sports Participation, Female Athletes, Pakistan.

Linking Conceptions to Practices: An Empirical Investigation of Teachers’ Conceptions & Practices of Class Room Assessment at Elementary Level

The present study investigated school teachers’ conceptions and practices regarding classroom assessment at elementary level. A total of 496 teachers participated in the study selected through proportionate cluster random sampling in four districts of Punjab. COA (Conceptions of Assessment) III abridged survey developed by Brown (2002) and API (Assessment Practices Inventory) developed by Mcmillan, Myran and Workman (2002) and adapted by Brown (2009) were used to solicit teachers’ opinions regarding conceptions and practices of classroom assessment. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results revealed teachers’ positive attitude towards improvement and accountability conceptions of assessment while displaying disagreement to irrelevance conception of assessment. Pearson correlation showed conceptions as mutually correlated. For the variable practices of assessment, teachers at elementary level were found to be frequently using informal formats for assessments requiring deep cognitive processing abilities. Overall, weak relationship was detected between conceptions and practices of classroom assessment. Influence of demographic variables was also observed affecting teachers’ classroom assessment practices. The study has implications for future researchers and school authorities.
Keywords: Conceptions, School Teachers, Assessment Practices; Elementary Level.

Youth Behavioural Outcomes: An Empirical Examination of Parenting Practices in Lahore, Pakistan

Parenting practices vary across cultures as Western, American and Asian cultures have entirely different kind of approaches towards the process of socialization. Contemporary Socio-psychological researches have highlighted parental acceptance and rejection as one of the major contributor in developing behavioural outcome among young children. In order to understand the parenting practices in Pakistani indigenous culture, an in-depth scientific enquiry was required that how parental acceptance and rejection dimensions of parenting practices manifest the social and anti-social behavioral outcomes among young children. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Lahore, an educational hub, socio-economically diverse, and the second largest city of the country. The sample comprised 816 male students (emerging youth) from public sector colleges of Lahore, Pakistan by employing proportional allocation due to unequal enrollments at each respective college. The results indicated that perceived parental rejection accounts 40.3% variations in violent behavioural outcome while warmth parenting practices accounts for 48.2% variations in self-confidence among students. The study suggested that there is a consistent need to promote the positive parenting interventions, such as increase in parental awareness, knowledge, and attitude, parent-child interaction, and parental attitudes, which may cause to improve in the prevalent parenting practices for reducing the risk factors in developmental outcomes of young children.
Keywords: Parental Acceptance, Parental Rejection, Self-confidence, Self-discipline, Violence.

Meta-Analysis Approach towards the Nature and Creation of Universe in the Light of Quranic Verses

The aim of this paper is to study the nature of Universe; its creation, its purpose and the time of its creation according to the teaching of Quran and Sunnah. This paper also explores the nature and purpose of man’s creation according to Quran and Sunnah. What science says about the nature of this universe, Quran described it fourteen hundred years ago. Science says that this universe came into being as a result of “Big Bang”. Quran also says that the heavens and earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before Allah clove them asunder. The time in which Allah has created this universe is approximately equal to the time that scientists had described about the creation of universe. Allah Almighty has created human beings with a divine purpose. Quran has succinctly described human nature fourteen hundred years ago what modern psychologists say today.
Keywords: Nature of Universe, Creation of Universe, Bing Bang Theory, Nature of Man, Creation of Man.

Investigating the Factors Affecting on the Gender Discrimination of Women’s Rights to Education in Rural Sindh- Pakistan.

Gender discrimination of women’s rights to education is stated as the core issue which has strongly affected socio-cultural, religious, psychological, political, family ignorance and education. This study aims to investigate the factors affecting on the gender discrimination of women’s rights to education in the Rural Sindh- Pakistan. This study is quantitative (deductive approach) by its nature. In this study, 574 sample sizes of the respondents have been taken from the target population of females of the IBA University Sukkur, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Nawab Shah, Universities of Sindh and branches of Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur Mirs, Sindh, Pakistan. In the intervening time for analyzing the data while applying the statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Software, version 26.0), and other techniques for analyzing the statistical data, (ANOVA), reliability, regression descriptive statistics have been employed in this way. Besides, study covers the affecting factors like gender discrimination towards women’s rights to education including socio-cultural; higher religiosity trend, traditional practices, male dominance and feudalist mindsets, negligence of family and tribes in Rural Sindh-Pakistan. The study concludes that factors for the instance education, male dominance, feudalist mindset, and other determinants caused to gender discrimination of women’s rights to education in rural Sindh-Pakistan.
Keywords: Gender, Factors, Discrimination, Women’s Rights; and Education.

Impact of Media on Biradari based Voting in Punjab Province of Pakistan

This study explores the relationship between the media and Biradari or kinship –related voting behaviour in the Punjab province of Pakistan during the general elections held in 2008 and 2013. The research method applied was longitudinal panel study with the panel sample of 1700 respondents. Data was collected twice from the same panel members before and after elections within two months each. The multi-stage cluster sample technique was used for data collection from the panel in all 10 divisions of Punjab province. The study concludes that kinship and Biradarism remained among the significant elements in the province during 2013 polls, however, due to media influence the Biradari based voting decreased slightly but significantly in Punjab province when compared to the General Elections held in year 2008. Furthermore, impact of media to decrease kinship-related voting was more in cities than village areas.
Keywords: Biradari, Voting Behaviour, Pakistan General Elections 2013, General Elections 2008, Punjab Province, Kinship-Based Voting, Media Effect.

Effect of Auditory Training with Hearing Aids on Speech Perception Skill Development of Children with Profound Hearing Loss

Auditory training plays a very significant role for individuals who use amplification devices to comprehend speech in realistic situations. The current study focuses on the effectiveness of auditory training using hearing aids and developing speech perception skills among the children with profound hearing loss. A special education school of Rawalpindi having maximum number of profoundly deaf children using bilateral-digital-behind the ear hearing aid was selected. The research tool for the study was an Urdu Speech Perception Test (Noor & Arif, 2018) with the score range of 0-60, which was linguistically and culturally appropriate for the children. The students were pre-tested to check their current Urdu speech perception skills. Random assignment of the sample to the control and the experimental group was made in such a way that the total score of groups and the number of boys and girls of age 4-14 years were equal in both groups. The resultant groups made with the help of a volunteer teacher were having twelve students each. The auditory training protocol based on stages delineated by Erber (1974) was provided for a period of six weeks to the experimental group. Afterwards posttest scores of Urdu speech perception skills of both groups were obtained. The results revealed significant improvement in speech perception skills due to auditory training provided with hearing aids to the children with profound hearing loss regardless of their age and gender. The provision of hearing aids to profoundly deaf children was recommended due to its cost effectiveness and easy accessibility.
Keywords: Auditory Training, Speech Perception, Hearing Impairment, Hearing Aid, Profound Hearing Loss.

Innate Human Discourse Features: A Comparative English Discourse Development in Children and Adults in Pakistan

The study aims to explore how children's English discourse is different from that of an adult, problems related to the development of English discourse that children and adults face in Pakistan, and how to overcome them. A mixed-method approach is used in the study. The study sample comprised 150 adults and 150 children for the survey, and 25 adults and 25 children for interviews from 5 universities and five schools from Punjab province of Pakistan. The research has identified that children's English discourse is different from that of adults in terms of vocabulary, learning process, practice, and experience. The other significant findings are the problems like lack of grammatical knowledge and confidence, punctuation mistakes and medium switching, and solution to these problems such as providing a proper platform for the development of English discourse, using audio-visual method rather than the grammar-translation method, motivating students into developing proper English discourse, and training teachers. From the findings, it can be suggested that much attention is needed to the development of English discourse from the earliest stage of education, and the government should provide trained and highly qualified teachers.
Keywords: English Discourse Development, Children vs. Adults, Problems, Solutions.

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Politics of Global Economy

The COVID-19 has taken into its garb the entire world for the last eight months. The pandemic will have far reaching repercussions on the politics of the global economy. More than 200 countries have fallen victim to it while more than eighty countries had to close down their borders for fear of the pandemic. Both the developed and developing countries had to devise strategies to get out of this quagmire by adhering to certain SOPs. This has resulted in the distortion of the social and economic sector of the world. Most of the routine activities of life remained suspended for about five months while the educational institutes are still closed down. Economic growth, global trade and economic development have been greatly affected, facing them with great economic challenges. The pandemic, despite its devastating effects, is also fraught with conspiracy theories on part of some countries.
Keywords: COVID-19, Economy, Politics, Conspiracy Theory.

Veneto's Experiential Approach through books - From Travel Literature to Literary Tourism as a Factor to Sustainable Growth

This paper aims to clarify the relationship between “literature” and “literary tourism” in time and space, applying its definition in the spatial context of the Italian province of Veneto. The contribution of the works of Dante Alighieri and Shakespeare seems to have been a key factor in the development of literary tourism and have been a pole of attraction for visitors since the Grand Tour era. Travelers from Shakespeare‟s time enjoyed visiting the town of Verona which also has the „the house and tomb‟ of Romeo and Juliet. Venice, besides its literary connotations with Shakespeare‟s Merchant of Venice also provides an experiential approach through a variety of books as well as creating novel routes for visitors through its historic bookstores.
Keywords: Travel Literature, Literary Tourism, Experiential Approach, Merchant of Venice, Romeo and Juliet Antique Bookshops, Sustainable Growth, Heritage Tourism.

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