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Academy of IRMBR Volume  8, July, 2020
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Political Reforms and Women’s Social Empowerment in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan)

Women’s empowerment is equal to the empowerment of a nation. The social empowerment of women too carries a vital role in their overall empowerment. The discourse of women’s social empowerment has been an academic business in the sociology of gender studies which always demands a feminist analysis. This paper analyses effect of the political amendments on the social empowerment of females in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. Key theoretical insights for this study come from liberal and Marxist camps of feminism. Empiricist epistemology fixes the methodological procedure of the study. Using simple random sampling technique, data come for this study from 400 women political representatives. Independent sample t-test technique and manifest content analysis helped in the analysis of data. The overall findings of this study revealed some inconsequential impact of the political amendments on the social empowerment of females, however, women segment of the society still needs serious attention for their social empowerment from different public and private stakeholders.
Keywords: Political Amendments, Social Empowerment Of Women, Women Political Representatives, Domestic Support, Social Engagements.

The Role of Cinema in Reflection of Political Ideologies

Robert Gregg asserts that films provide an insight into the real picture of international relations. (Gregg, 1998.P.10) Films serve as an important tool in manufacturing the consent of the target audience. By remaining loyal to the narrowest lines of foreign policy of a government, film makers urge to define and redefine friends and foes on silver screen. Sticking to above context, film may be taken as an important manuscript of socio-political history of a nation. Every film continues to be political as its basis lies in some ideology. In the words of Merrill, a film is not only an instrument of communication but it also serves as an organ of propaganda to build or rebuild one’s image.
Keywords: Film, Politics, Ideology, US, Policy.

A Critique of the Assessment of Achievements and Failures of the Foreign Funded Projects in District Khyber

This study was conducted to assess the achievements and failures of the foreign funded projects conducted in Khyber Agency. The data was collected from the donors’ websites, office files and newspaper articles and through interviews from the beneficiaries of the project. The findings of the study show that these projects have benefited the community in a variety of ways. The people have been helped in livestock and agriculture sectors which in turn have boosted the economic activities resulting in the ultimate restitution of the livelihood of the community. The findings also show that the limited economic opportunities in the Newly Merged Districts (NMDs) have forced the local people, especially young men, to join either militant groups or indulge in illicit trades which offer good financial incentives. Thus, the creation of employment and other alternative livelihood options through the market-led agriculture and livestock are critical for the stabilization of the NMDs. The findings also reveal the fact that the precarious situation, threats from the non-state actors, and the intervention of the local landlords and some governmental departments hinder the smooth operation of these projects. In the light of the data analysis, the researcher recommends that more funds should be allocated for agriculture, rehabilitation, energy, infrastructure and health sectors. The monitoring system should be upgraded, the community should be directly involved and the participation of the governmental personnel and departments should be minimized.
Keywords: Foreign Funded, Agrarian, Locals, Humanitarian, Economy.
HAMIDA BIBI 17-26 Download(66)

A Review on Psychological Contract and Psychological Contract Breach: Addressing Missing Link in the Context of Developing World

scenarios are changing and organizations in recent years have been striving much harder more than ever to remain competitive nationally as well as internationally. This quest results in adapting various strategies such as cutting costs, restructuring, outsourcing, layoffs, and downsizing. Such changes have evolved the psychological contracts between the employees and employers and pushed the organization into a different kind of work arrangements. The origin and traces of the construct Psychological contract can be found in the research work of Roehling (1997), in which he cited various theories to provide an understanding of psychological contract such as social exchange theory. According to the literature available on psychological contract, it was in the early 1960s and till the late 1980s the concept of psychological contract gone through the emergence stage, and this concept experienced the development stage from the late 1980s to the present. A comprehensive literature review was conducted on psychological contract and on its breach from peer-reviewed scientific journals of repute to set future research agenda. Although extensive work on the psychological contract has been conducted in the western world, however, there was a missing link in the literature of psychological contract in the context of developing word. This conceptual research paper has set an agenda for future research on psychological contract its breach, its exploration in the developing world particularly in Asian countries with special reference to its effects of employee's work outcomes.
Keywords: Psychological Contracts (PC), Psychological Contracts Breach (PCB), Systematic Literature Review, Developing World, Asian Countries.

Research Ethics: Knowledge and Understanding of Social Science Research Students

In social sciences, research is carried out to take insight into social problems and propose solutions. Usually, social sciences research involves human subjects and there is a need for protection of data provided by the respondents and to be honest with data utilization and reporting. The aim of the study was to explore the perspectives of research students about ethics in research. The nature of this study was qualitative. A sample of 40 registered research students participated in the study. An Interview protocol was developed. Collected data was analyzed by using thematic analysis. The results revealed that research students believe on building positive and collaborative relationship with respondents, keeping confidentiality and anonymity of the data and acknowledging the efforts of the previous researchers in the field. The study also revealed that during data collection influence of researcher may occur and reaching truth may become difficult. The study is significant for the research program developers to consider the research ethics, their awareness and practice as part of the research curriculum and supervisory practices.
Keywords: Research practice, Research ethics, Integrity, Anonymity, Publication procedure.

Personality Assessment and Comparison between Juvenile Delinquents and Non-Delinquents in Khyber Pakhtunkhaw

To assess the different problematic aspects of personality related to locus of control, compliance and impulsive behavior prevailing among delinquents which in comparison to them are either absent or minimally present in non-delinquents. It’s a Comparative Study.The data has been collected from Peshawar, Mardan, Haripur, Mansehra, Kohat Prisons and localities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa from 2014 to 2018. Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale, and The Manifestation of Symptomatology Scale (Impulsivity Content Scale & Compliance Content Scale) were used to collect data from juvenile delinquents (n=100) non-delinquents (n=100) through convenient sampling technique. Chi square value(χ2=43.61**) confirms that juvenile delinquents show high scores on external locus of control, results also confirmed that juvenile delinquents show high impulsivity (t=7.41, p=0.000), and high level of difficulty to show compliance (t=9.81, p=0.000) as compared to non-delinquents. Poor internal locus of control among juvenile delinquents results in absence of guilt which enhances their non-compliance as findings revealed that juvenile delinquents show high impulsivity and they seriously face difficulty to comply any kind of rules and regulation and in case of failure in their lives they never accept their own faults but blame others.
Keywords: Juvenile Delinquents, Non-Delinquents, Locus of Control, Impulsivity, Compliance.
MISBAH KARAMAT and ERUM IRSHAD 43-53 Download(68)

Empirical Analysis of the Moderating and Mediating Variables on the Relationship Between Corporate Social Responsibility and Firms Financial Performance

Although previous studies have established the link between corporate social responsibility (CSR) effects on financial performance (FP) of firms, however, scholars argued CSR alone cannot ensure FP because when a firm adopts value-creating strategies, it is necessary such strategies align with their stakeholder’s to yield improvements to FP. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of CSR on firms’ FP through examining the mediating effect of corporate reputation and moderating effect of stakeholder’s orientation on companies listed in Pakistan stock exchange. The structural equation modeling approach is employed to test the hypothesized model and finding revealed significant results.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Reputation, Stakeholders, Orientation, Pakistan.

Socio-Economic Implications of the Malnutrition on School Children: A Qualitative Study in Rural Areas of Punjab, Pakistan

This study is conducted to explore the socio-economic implication of malnutrition on school children in rural areas of Punjab, Pakistan. To carry out this research, qualitative research approach was adopted. Total eight focus group discussions were conducted through interview guide and data was analyzed through thematic analysis approach. The results of the study revealed that large impacts on school achievements, socialization process and economic growth. In accordance with school achievements, malnutrition make the learners less attentive, lessens the attendance rate and reduces the participation in co-curricular activities. Malnutrition makes the socialization process more difficult by reducing their participation in social and physical activities. Malnutrition lowers the work capacity, minimizes the career and earning opportunities. At last, by summarizing the results, it was concluded that poverty and low education turn the malnutrition into an intergenerational problem. To break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition some useful recommendations like income generating based social activities should be encouraged and different awareness campaigns should be launched through education and knowledge delivery.
Keywords: Malnutrition, Intergenerational Problem, Socialization, Economy, Lethargy, School performance.

Students Learning Competencies in Mother Tongue at Primary Level: Evidences from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

This article investigated students’ learning competencies in mother’s tongue as compared to English as media of instruction in the subject of science at low level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It also found gender-based differences in students’ performance in science in mother’s tongue at low level. The study followed documents analysis method design. The sample of the study was 200 government primary schools (100 male+100 female) conveniently selected from two densely populated districts (Mardan and Swabi) of the province. Primary data regarding class-3 and 4 students’ scores in mother’s tongue and English as media of instruction in the subject of science were collected from schools’ record (School Annual Exam, Gazette: Sessions, 2016-2019) respectively. The collected data were analyzed by applying t-test. The results of the study concluded that students significantly showed better learning competencies in terms of well performance in mother’s tongue as compared to English as media of instruction in the subject of science. The study further found that there was no gender-based difference in students’ learning competencies in mother’s tongue as medium of instruction at primary level. Therefore, it was recommended that keeping in views students’ learning competencies in mother’s tongue government should make sure the implementation of NEP-2017 at primary level to ensure the provision of quality at the initial stages of child’s education.
Keywords: Mother’s Tongue, English, Medium of Instruction, Learning Competency, Science.

Relationship between Parenting Style and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students

The study was conducted to explore the relationship between Parenting style and academic achievement of higher secondary school students at Lahore. The instrument used for this study was the Parenting style scale. The sample of the study was 400 public sector higher secondary school students at Lahore, Pakistan. Complete questionnaires were returned from 389 students. An independent sample t-test, one way ANOVA and Post- hoc (tukey, HSD) were applied to analyse the data by using SPSS version 20.0 to test the research questions. Statistical and descriptive evidences of the study made the researcher conclude that there was a weak or no correlation between two variables at p≤0.05. The other major finding was strictness that is negatively related to academic achievement of the students. If parents were authoritarian towards their children they fail in their academic achievement at higher secondary level. No meaningful difference was found in the perception of male and female students’ having area of science, arts and commerce in terms of acceptance, involvement, strictness and supervision. A significant difference was found among female and male students’ father and mother education in terms of involvement. There was no huge contrast found as far as sex and age.
Keywords: Academic Achievement, Adolescents, Higher Secondary School Students, Parenting Style.
Cultural Odyssey and Happiness: Gendered Experiences of Divorce, Separation and Widowhood in Pakistan
This paper examines the experiences of happiness for divorced, separated and widow men and women in Islamabad city of Pakistan. Taking a qualitative interpretive approach, data was collected through twelve life histories and twelve semi-structured interviews. The findings reveal that the participants’ narratives of happiness were strongly embedded within the social and cultural discourses. Compared to men, women faced more stigmatization, harassment, fear and threats of violence. Women were also more likely to be held responsible for issues related to children’s custody and they were dishonored. The paper argues that men and women as social identities cannot exercise independent agency. Their acts and behavior are all guided by the cultural values and norms that guide their lives. This shows that marriage in Pakistan is a social contract instead of a personal one and the termination of marriage is an unhappy experience especially for women who are already disproportionately affected by other inequalities in the society. The paper calls to rethink about divorce, separation and widowhood as social constructs.
Keywords: Happiness, Divorce, Separation, Widowhood, Gender, Qualitative Research.
SAIRA BATOOL and RABIA ALI 97-107 Download(63)

Does Psychological Distance obliterate LMX fruits? Mediating Role of Perceptions of Task Identity

Leadership dynamics are getting increased attention of researchers, for its role in organization building. This study explains the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) on creativity, with the intervention of task perception (PTI) and moderation of psychological distance (PD). Using multi-time, multi-source data collection from 250 white-collar employees from the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. A convenient sampling technique with a self-administered questionnaire is used to collect data. Findings of the study revealed that LMX is positively related to PTI and creativity and mediation of PTI and Moderation of PD are also significant. The study adds to the discussion on the leadership role in organizations for the creation of innovation.
Keywords: Leader-Member Exchange, Social Exchange, Psychological distance, Creativity, Task perception, Time Lagged.

The Conceptual framework of Liberalism in the International Politics

This paper focuses on the conceptual framework of liberalism. It views the individual as the unit of analysis and considers it as the end in itself while the state is the means with very limited role. Free trade and open market mechanism are the basic concerns of this theory for which close cooperation, interaction and interdependence among the states is the sine qua non for it. The creation of regional and international organizations upholds the cause of protecting the integrity of individuals and states. The one violating the norms of international organizations are charged with sanctions. The theory manifests itself in the form of Classical Realism, Democratic Peace Theory and Neo-realism, each with its specific propositions. It believes in the peaceful means of conflict resolution through negotiations and diplomacy.
Keywords: Liberalism, Democratic Peace Theory, Conflict Resolution, Free Trade.
MUHAMMAD TARIQ 120-126 Download(57)

Corona Disease (COVID-19) and its Impacts on Society: A Review of the Existing Literature

This study aims to identify the impacts of Corona pandemic on the psycho-social conditions of the people. Besides, the study explores the role of social workers in this pandemic as well. The study is qualitative in nature, presenting the analysis of the available literature. Research papers, newspapers and other online material has been accessed and analyzed accordingly. The study summarizes that COVID-19 has casted its effects on the lives of all the people, leading to psycho-social problems of various degrees in them. Therefore services of professional social workers are needed in this need of the hour, so that they can extend maximum help to the government functionaries to help contain the spread of COVID-19 and could solve the related psycho-social problems faced by the people. The implications of the study to the policy suggest that professional social workers should be involved in planning interventions for mitigating the problems of Corona patients in particular, and communities in general.
Keywords: Corona, Pandemic, Impacts, Psycho-social, Social Work.

Teachers’ Knowledge, Dispositions and Skills in The Light of National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan

The purpose of the study was to know the perception of the secondary school teachers and criticaly examine their knowledge, Disposition and skills in the light of National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan. The province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa was divided into five administrative zones. The study focused on four districts namely Sawat, Mansehra, Peshawar and Kohat from the four administrative zones of the province. Out of 3245 Secondary School Teachers (SSTs), 250 in four districts were randomly selected as respondents. Data collected through a questionnaire were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. The results showed that teachers’ skills were significantly higher as compared to their knowledge and disposition both in urban and rural areas. The findings were highly significant for the instructional planning and strategies for knowledge, disposition and skills. In order to enhance professionalism, the study recommended proper professional development sessions with the proper span of time.
Keywords: National Professional Standards for Teachers, Teacher Education, Elementary & Secondary Education.

Perceived Impact of Psychological Behaviors on Sporting Performance of University Players

The aim of the present study was to determine the relationships of aggression, violence, stress, and anxiety with sports performance of contact game players. The research methodology was based on quantitative in nature. The population was comprised of 96o male players of three public sector universities of Pakistan. A total number of 300 survey questionnaires were distributed to these university players whereas, 256 participants responded. Descriptive statistics (percentage, frequencies, and standard deviation), Pearson’s correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were employed to analyze the collected survey data. After analyzing the data statistically through SPSS version-25, the Alpha was considered at its significant level (0.05) for results of the existing research. Results of correlation revealed highly significant (p=0.01) and negative relationships of aggression, violence, stress, and anxiety with sports performance. The findings of the existing study revealed that the predicting factors (aggression, violence, stress, and anxiety) significantly (p=0.01) regressed the outcome variable (sports performance). The recommendations of the research concluded that players need to avoid displaying negative aggressive and violent behaviors in the fields of play, whereas, they need to get rid of stress and anxiety to perform better. Therefore, research implication concluded that players of team sports should play aggressively toward their game only to perform at their best not to victimize their rivals and control their stress and anxiety levels for the optimal performance.
Keywords: Aggression, Violence, Stress, Anxiety, Sports Performance, University Players, Pakistan.

Actors Value-in-Context through Engagement in an Entrepreneurial Community: A SD Logic Perspective

Multiple actors within entrepreneurial communities interact and integrate resources to co-create value in form of economic and social development. Where value at the community level has been explored (e.g. economic and social development), literature lacks an explanation of how it is perceived on the level of the actor interacting in the entrepreneurial community, particularly from the SD logic perspective. Henceforth, we explore the perceived value-in-context of an engaged actor in the entrepreneurial community through a phenomenological study. By collecting longitudinal data we provide themes of value-in- context and provide a conceptual model of value-in-context in an entrepreneurial community. This study adds to entrepreneurship eco-system literature and service dominant logic research in marketing. The paper provides recommendations of orchestrating engagement within entrepreneurial communities on the basis of perceived value-in-context.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Value-In-Context, S-D Logic, Co-Creation of Value, Engagement, Entrepreneurial Community.

Entrepreneurial Intentions and Behaviors in Developing Economies: The Role of Personality Traits and Entrepreneurial Education

Entrepreneurship is regarded as a multi-disciplinary subject incorporating the science of psychology, sociology and management. Entrepreneurship being a purely intentional process cannot be completely assessed without examining the psychological factors. In the current study, the relationship between Entrepreneurial intentions and entrepreneurial behavior has been examined considering how the Big-Five personality traits and education about entrepreneurship enhance or minimize the role of intentions in determining behavior. NEO-FFI personality inventory, Entrepreneurial Intentions Inventory and Entrepreneurial Education inventory were used to collect data from 270 respondents. The sample represented business graduates, entrepreneurs and employees from public and private sectors in Pakistan. The regression analysis revealed that the Big-Five personality traits and education had a significant impact on the entrepreneurial intentions. Whereas, the intentions were revealed not to mediate the relationship between personality traits, education and behavior. The study clearly states the traits that need to be developed for successful entrepreneurial activity. It holds significance by imposing that increased education and awareness about entrepreneurship can help direct the professionals and prospects towards successful venture creation and sustenance. The lack of mediation has been discussed and identified as a future area of investigation.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Intentions, Personality Traits, Education, Entrepreneurial Behavior.

Professional Integrity: As a Part of Professional Ethics in Exhibiting Professionalism in Teaching Profession

Any reform for student learning enhancement largely depends upon the capacity of the teacher’s professionalism. Capacity building of the teachers is a critical factor of all professional development programmes. Although every reform program covers the professional development of the teachers, yet there remains a concern whether the changes brought by the program will be sustained over the time or not. Sustainability of professional standards depends upon how well the individuals perform professionally and institutes facilitate to create a conducive professional environment. Honesty is considered as part of Integrity in any profession. Students learn respect for social norms and consistently behave according to values, moral principles and believe they belong to. It is highly affected by the way teachers inculcate and emphasize a code of ethics in their classrooms. This study was descriptive (survey research) in which data were gathered to review the need of professional integrity of secondary school teachers who joined as a teaching profession. The participants (head teachers/principals = 112, secondary school teachers = 224, secondary school learners = 448) were participated in the study, a scale names as professional integrity scale (PIS) was used for data collection. It had eight constructs. The scale was based upon five-point Likert rating. The collected data were analyzed based through descriptive statistics (% and mean average). Findings of the research indicated that ethical values were generally applied by the secondary school teachers during the teaching learning process.
Keywords: Diversity, Ethics, Honesty, Professional Development, Professional Integrity.

Role of Effective Coordination in Realization of Commercial and Philanthropic Relationships During Disasters

In developing and under developed countries humanitarian organization need help both from commercial and philanthropic entities in order to respond efficiently and effectively. Due to the involvement of large number of humanitarian actors, proper coordination among them becomes very difficult. The coordination mechanism is still in its infancy stage in humanitarian environment as compared to commercial one. In this study we have reviewed the current coordination challenges faced by humanitarian organizations while dealing with commercial and philanthropic entities. Moreover, different coordination mechanism suitable in different scenarios and benefits obtained by practicing these techniques has also been discussed while keeping in view the commercial and philanthropic entities.
Keywords: Coordination, Commercial Organizations, Philanthropic Entities, Humanitarian Supply Chain.

Exploring the Perception of Faculty towards the Youth Extremism in Higher Educational Institutions Punjab, Pakistan

The purpose of this study is to explore the enticing factors of youth extremism in higher educational institutions. The contemporary world is facing various issues regarding youth extreme, behaviour and wrongful nature of youth groups. They are a particular segment of society due to insufficient life experiences, lack of knowledge, weak values, belief and ideology. The researches often presented that illiterate and uneducated persons were involved in extremism and violent extremism acts. Still, from the last five years, different incidents took placed inside and outside of the universities. A qualitative method was used to explore the enticing factors of youth extremism and select the faculty members through convenience sampling to examine their belief, views and attitudes toward the university youth extremism. The findings highlighted that universities are involved in youth extremism and indicate the different factors that are associated with youth directly and indirectly. The conclusions presented the functions of group's conflicts, nepotism, favouritism, socio-psychological attributes, the participation of external forces, economic characteristics, religious belief, behavioural and personality trait, ideological and political extremism in the universities extremism context.
Keywords: Youth Extremism, Higher Educational Institutions, Faculty.

Depiction of Smart Phones Consumption in Intelligence Quest of Students

Due to advent of electronic gadgets in daily life, it has become impossible to detain the young ones from their use. This research study aimed to look into the debate of good or bad impact of electronic gadgets, specially the smart phones. For this purpose, Intelligence Quest tests were tailored for two strata of the students, keeping in view their academic level. These student were selected by using a combination of stratified and multistage cluster sampling technique among different tier of Government and Private schools. Smart phone consumption pattern of students was assessed against their score in IQ test attempted by them. Findings of the study revealed that there was a negative relationship between usage time of smart phones and score in IQ test. Moreover financial status of the respondent was found to be directly proportional to the consumption time of gadgets.
Keywords: Smart Phones, Intelligence Quest, Students, Socio-economic Status.

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