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Academy of IRMBR Volume  8, November, 2020
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Effects of Technology on the Academic Achievement of Students’ At College Level

The main purpose of this research was to explore the effects of technology on the academic achievement of students at college level. The main objective of the research was to investigate the relationship between the availability, accessibility & usability and KSL of technology on student’s academic achievement. It was quantitative study. Survey was used as research design. The target population was take from all private colleges of Islamabad city (session 2015-16). Through purposive sampling technique total 380 students were selected from 09 private colleges of Islamabad city. Questionnaire was used to collect the responses of the target sample and data were analyzed through Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. The major findings of the study were: there was a significant effect of technology like; availability, accessibility, usability and KSL on students’ academic achievement. It is concluded that student emphasis on the usage of the technology in daily class room activity. Student responded that technology brings a significance effects on their academic performance. This study is recommended that teacher may be use different gadgets and introduce different software which student can use for their learning. Teacher might be provide the facility of wireless devices across the institution. Teachers may encourage students for active learning by using different technology.
Keywords: Technology, Academic Achievement, Availability, Accessibility & Usability.

The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Segregating the Economic Growth into Production Function inputs in G-7 Countries: An Econometrics Analysis

The COVID-19 pandemic is greatest evidence to explore the link between production inputs and environmental quality. The lockdown in most countries limited the labor/capital participation in industries. The pattern of economic growth affected very badly but the quality of environment gets much better condition in COVID-19 pandemic periods. This study segregating economic-growth into production inputs like Labor and capital, and examining impact of Labor, capital and electricity-production by fossil fuels on environmental degradations in G-7 countries” using panel data from 1996 to 2019. The study verifies an environmental Kuznets curve model. The unit root test shows mix order of integration and study use the ARDL (Auto Regressive Distributive Lag) Model and ECM to estimate the results. The result shows that in the short run and as well as long run, Labor and capital have significant impact on carbon-dioxide-emissions and capital square proves EKC. In short run as well as in longrun, Energy consumption has significant but positive impact on carbon dioxide emissions. The study suggest the prescription of environmental degradation, the carbon dioxide can be minimized by increasing the better economic growth with optimal combination of labor and capital and Energy consumption by renewable sources to achievement of better conditions.
Keywords: Economic, Growth, G-7 Countries & Production.

Students' Experiences of Failure to get Admission in Desired Medical Degree Programs and their Choices of Alternative Degrees

Pursuing a medical degree and becoming a doctor is a dream for most of the pre-medical students, but it does not always come true. The failure to get admission to a medical college brings pain, frustration and disappointment, and students seek alternative degree programs to satisfy their unfulfilled wish of becoming a doctor. The present study aims to examine pre-medical students' lived experiences of failure to get admission to Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) and Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) program in medical colleges and universities of Pakistan and their choices for degree programs after the failure. Phenomenology was employed to examine the lived experiences of ten Pre-Medical students who were studying in different fields of professional degrees after failure to get admission to MBBS/BDS. They were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide consisting of open-ended questions. The transcripts were analyzed through line by line and selective approach to extract themes from the participants' experiences. The emergent themes include experiencing failure, causes of failure, choosing an alternative field, perspectives on the admission process and getting things better. The results imply for providing guidance and counselling to the students, facilitating them in seeking alternative degree programs and opening new medical institutes.
Keywords: Medical Education, Academic Failure, Academic Program, Study Choice, Admission Policy, MBBS & BDS, Higher Education, Pakistan.

Violation of Islamic Ideology in Pakistani T.V. Advertisements: Semiotic Discourse Analysis

Electronic media, especially television, is a powerful medium and a great source for dissolving identities and making fake identities in the viewers' minds. The present research aims to investigate different dimensions of anti-Islamic signs used in five selected Pakistani television advertisements in semiotic perspectives and unveils how these signs and symbols work at an implicit level to propagate anti-Islamic values and violation of Islamic ideology. Descriptive Qualitative approach is used for the analysis of selected data. The researchers used Ferdinand de Saussure's theory to analyze the socio-semiotic dimensions of discourse in the selected data. This research points out that new Pakistani advertisements of the leading brands are a source to create anti-Islamic social identities in Pakistani youth's minds. Such a portrayal of Pakistani social life is truly anti-Islamic. Instead of following the Islamic values and civilization, the youth is under the charisma of these modern showbiz icons and personalities. The present research aims to provide the food for thoughts to the policymakers, PAMERA, and concerned authorities to take strict measures to stop anti-Islamic representation through advertisements in an Islamic country.
Keywords: Violation, Islamic Ideology, Pakistani T.V. Advertisements, Semiotic Analysis.

Development of Professional Attitude Among Prospective Teachers Through Regular and Distance Modes of Training

The current research work examined the development of the professional attitude among upcoming instructors trained by regular and distance modes of training. Since independence of Pakistan teacher education is encountering a lot of questions and problems. Numbers of policies were framed out for different time periods to overcome the setbacks of teacher education faced by the prospective teachers in developing perfect constructive stance towards profession of teaching. So, this study was carried out to analyze and compare the disposition of learning of pupil teachers in Regular and Distance program in government higher education organizations towards their teaching career. Teacher educators, policy makers and administrators of different government establishments can use this study to enhance their coaching programs of equally the Regular and Distance type of Learning. The government universities of Punjab province were selected to gather the data for this study. Three hundred prospective teachers were selected as a sample from the four selected universities, two Regular and two Distance public sector universities, seventy-five (75) upcoming teachers were chosen through convenient sampling from each one of higher Institutions. Questionnaire was used as tool for this study. By using statistical treatment and opinions of the expert the quality and reliability of the research tool can be validated. t-test was applied to compare the mean scores on attitude scale of both groups. Findings demonstrated that there is noteworthy contrast between the attitude of those educators who are learning in regular and distance courses.
Keywords: Teaching Profession, Teacher Training Program, Professional Attitude, Prospective Teachers, Regular Education, Distance Education.

Continuous Professional Development and Teachers Performance: Analysis of Secondary School Teachers

The purpose of this research was to analyze the performance of Secondary School Teachers’ (SSTs) of public sector on the base of selected National Professional Standards (NPS). The study was descriptive in nature and survey method was used for the collection of data. The population comprised of 19,265 secondary school teachers and 3,601 headmasters of Punjab province. By applying simple random sampling technique, 401 secondary school teachers and 222 headmasters were selected from secondary schools of this province. Two questionnaires were used for collection of data from selected teachers & headmasters. Data was analyzed by applying Crounbach’s alpha, frequency distribution, and Chi-Square with SPSS software. It was found that the teachers of secondary schools have adequate knowledge, disposition and performance about continuous professional development. Therefore, it is recommended that school education department may launch training programs about knowledge, disposition and skills regarding continuous professional development as per National Professional Standards (NPS) for teachers.
Keywords: Continuous Professional Development, Knowledge, Disposition, Performance, Secondary Schools.

Contribution of Internal and External Determinants to Sports Participation of Student Players of South Punjab

The present research aims to determine the effect of internal and external determinants on sports participation of male and female college student players of South Punjab, Pakistan. The study was quantitative in nature. All male and female players of colleges were considered as population. Randomly selected 450 student players were found as sample size. Five-point Likert self-administered survey questionnaire was implemented as instrument of data collection. Descriptive statistics and inferential analysis were employed as statistical techniques to evaluate the collected data. The findings of the present research revealed that internal and external determinants had significant relationships with sports participation of student players. The results indicated that internal and external determinants had significant effect on sports participation of college players. It was concluded that female and male colleges/institutions of South Punjab are still much lacking of sports infrastructure and insufficiently developing the sports facilities to college student players needed to their sports participation. College administration and lecturers’ health and physical education should utilized the sports budget to enhance the opportunities in their institutions for student players.
Keywords: Internal and External Determinants, Sports Participation, Student Players, South Punjab.

Metacognition Instruction: It’s Impact on Prospective Teachers in Pakistan

Metacognition means cognition about cognition; it refers to second order cognitions: thoughts about thoughts, knowledge about knowledge, or reflections about actions. The main purpose of the current investigation was to explore metacognition instruction and its impact on prospective teachers in Pakistan. The main intent of the prevailing research was the views of the prospective teachers about metacognition instruction and the impact of metacognition instruction on prospective teachers in Pakistan. It was quantitative study. The population of study was all prospective teachers and teacher educators of two public sector universities of Islamabad i.e., International Islamic University and NUML. The sample of 245 prospective teachers was selected through purposive sampling technique. Self-structured questionnaire was used as a research tool. Data were tabulated and analyzed through percentage, frequency, mean score and chi-square
Keywords: Cognition, Metacognition, Metacognition Instruction, Prospective Teachers.

Technical and Vocational Education and Training System: A Way Forward to Global Workforce Development in Pakistan

Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) not only supplies the requisite workforce to the business and industry, but it also provides the TVET professionals unique pathways to growth, sustainable livelihoods, and development. This paper attempts to review the present state of TVET in Pakistan and compares it with the countries in Asia and Europe. A thorough review of secondary research sources revealed that the formal education system of Pakistan lacks the capability to cater to the skills requirements of the contemporary business world and industry. Therefore, public and private sectors should come forward and pay equal attention to TVET along with formal education, for which a demand-driven approach may be adopted. Moreover, strategic linkages among institutions, employers, government, and society are the need of the hour. The paper also proposes a framework for an effective TVET system for Pakistan, incorporating the contemporary research and successful practices along with recommendations to improve the current system and upgrade the existing TVET structure in the country.
Keywords: Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), Workforce Development, Information and Communication Technologies, Curricula Development, University-Industry Collaboration.

Impact of Fashion Vloggers in Promotion of Brands

The purpose of this research is to explore the impact of Pakistani fashion vloggers in promotion of brands among youth of Islamabad. Influence of vloggers communities on youth of Islamabad both male and female. The research followed a quantitative approach. Average sampling unit is tested by descriptive, in-depth interviews were conducted with 60 youth participants i.e. 30 male and 30 female youth of Islamabad that age 18 to 24. The data was tabulated, analyzed using Likert scale. Through participants’ narratives, it was discovered that Fashion Brands shared on vlogs create the online image of brands and brand image on the youth of Islamabad. Fashion brand image promoted through vlogs does influence brand loyalty of youth. The extent to which Pakistani vloggers influence the brand image and brand loyalty to youth of Islamabad depends on their personal experiences with brands. The findings show that Pakistani fashion vloggers pay more attention to sentiments of youth of Islamabad through vlogging community sites. These sentiments can help to gain huge youth market to building favorable brand image and ensuring brand loyalty towards fashion products. Descriptive questionnaire was constructed that demonstrated the impact of Pakistani fashion vloggers in promotion of fashion brands. Questionnaire comprises of twelve basic impact factors items related of fashion vloggers and its impact on the youth.
Keywords: Vlogs, Vloggers, Brand Promotion, Brand, Attribute toward Products, Emotional Bond.

Relationship between Social Skills with Students' Academic Achievement at Secondary Level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

This study aimed to determine the relationship of social skills with students’ academic achievement at secondary level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Many factors affect students’ academic achievement but one of them is students’ social skills. In this study, five social skills .i.e. peer relation, self-management, academic, cooperation and assertive skills were taken. This was a survey and co-relational type study. All the2616 public secondary schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa were the population of the study.Sixty public secondary schools was selected as sample. Twenty students of grade 9th from each school were selected randomly as sample. For data collection, two questionnaires i.e.5-point Likert scales, one for students and other for class teachers, were used. For assessment of students’ academic achievement, self-developed Pakistan study academic achievement test(PSAAT) was used. The validity of instruments was checked with the help of expert committee while reliability was checked through Cronbach alpha and was determined as 0.945.Data were analyzed on the basis of research question, using Pearson-product moment correlation, Independent sample t-test and ANOVA. From the findings, it is concluded that there is positive correlation between social skills and students’ academic achievement at secondary level. It is essential for every school to provide social skills training program to students for enhancement of their academic achievement.
Keywords: Social Skills, Academic Achievement, Secondary Level.

Dynamic Impacts of Development and Energy Consumption Pattern on Environmental Quality: A Case Study of Selected Populous Asian Countries

The present study aims to examine the long-run and short-run effects of economic development, energy consumption pattern, trade openness and urbanization on environmental quality in ten Asian most populous economies. The analysis examines panel data from 1988 to 2018 by employing an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach. The results indicate that the struggles to raise development are increasing the CO2 emissions in these emerging populous countries. Moreover, the utilization of non-renewable energy sources (gas, coal, oil) is associated with high carbon emissions affecting environmental quality adversely and worsening the atmosphere at the zonal level too. Furthermore, the empirical findings highlight that urbanization and trade openness partake to the reduction of CO2 emission and hence are considered environmental friendly. Finally, the government should formulate the strategies which help to reduce the use of non-renewable energy sources and promote the consumption of efficient gas energy source to raise development and better environmental quality in populous countries of Asia and hence the strategies will be helpful for the comfort and happiness of this part of the emerging region.
Keywords: Environmental Quality, Economic Development, Energy Consumption Pattern, ASIAN Populous Countries, Panel Data.

‘Human Resource Development’ through ‘Enhancement of Education Quality’ of Higher Education

Education is a major tool of achievement of economic, political and social development because higher education state of a country is an index of her social well being and Human development and Economic growth of nations and countries are greatly dependent on improvement in education. Currently Higher Education is facing a new era due to changes in the way people view the colleges and universities and making increasing expectations of better performance in the form of better teaching and producing competent graduates. But parents, students, businesses, legislators and general public are increasingly becoming dissatisfied with currently provided higher education. Today the biggest challenge for higher education system is to improve the quality, as it is merely quality education which can sharpens the individuals’ minds and transforms the society politically, socially and economically. ‘Quality Education’ is the success with which institutions provide educational environment, which enables effectively to achieve worthwhile learning goals including appropriate academic standards. To enhance the quality of education in Pakistan Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan has taken steps during last two decades by establishing quality assurance agencies (QAA), and under them quality enhancement cells (QECs) in Pakistani universities and higher education Institutions. This paper is dedicated to discuss concept of quality in higher education, problems in quality of higher education, parameters, and indicators of quality and steps taken to improve higher education.
Keywords: Quality Education, Quality Enhancement, HEC Pakistan.

Resilience and Self-Efficacy among Clinical Population: Moderating Role of Rejection Sensitivity

The objective of the current study was to examine the rejection sensitivity as a moderator between resilience and self-efficacy among clinical patients of Cancer, Thalassemia, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Diabetes. The sample consisted of 360 clinical patients (age ranged from 15-85 years) who were selected using purposive sampling technique from different hospitals of Islamabad, Lahore and Gujrat, Pakistan. The resilience, self-efficacy and rejection sensitivity were measured by using Brief Resilience Coping Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale and Adult – Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire in Urdu language. Findings of the study clearly indicated a statistically significant positive correlation between resilience and self-efficacy (r=.629**, p<.01) whereas statistically significant negative correlation between resilience and rejection sensitivity (r=-.342**, p<.01), and rejection sensitivity and self-efficacy (r=-.363**, p<.01). Further, moderation analysis determined that rejection sensitivity with the interaction of the self-efficacy influenced resilience (.005, p≤.01) among clinical population. So, dealing with the rejection sensitivity in patients and improvement in their self-efficacious abilities to cope with the illnesses, resilience power can be enhanced.
Keywords: Resilience, Self-efficacy, Rejection Sensitivity, Cancer, Thalassemia, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Diabetes.

Challenges and Opportunities in Educating Nomadic Children: A Case Study of Cholistan Desert

This paper sets out to capture current challenges and opportunities of education for children in Cholistan desert; it reveals different mode of education, available facilities and challenges that education providers and would be users of educational facilities meet with. Cholistan being desert area, has an ‘aggressive’ climatic and exceptional geographical conditions which make its access difficult for outsiders making life hard for Cholistani people. Life in Cholistan revolves around livestock rearing as its main source of subsistence and hence key factor for seasonal migration to manage water and fodder. To study such population, qualitative approach was adopted, and data was collected through protracted qualitative interviews and participants observation. The study reveals that Greater Cholistan lacks the formal educational facilities leaving the people out of options to send their children for attending school. Their learning remains limited to informally gained basic knowledge of life skills like animal husbandry and managing life from their close family members. However, in the case of Lesser Cholistan, somehow there is availability of formal educational facilities, which is generating an emerging trend of getting modern education. In this part of Cholistan, pastoralist parents are relatively aware about the need and importance of education. The study concludes that availability of and access to educational facilities is one of the determinantal factors for motivating nomadic and semi nomadic parents in Cholistan for educating their children. In addition, policy makers and stakeholders should consider specific geographical conditions and requirements while taking initiatives for education of nomadic children.
Keywords: Cholistan, Education, Nomadism, Pastoralists, Migration.

Does It Matter To Assess the High Order Thinking Skills among Prospective Teacher Educators?

Education plays major role in developing higher order thinking skills among youth so that they may be capable to face but also manage the challenges of the present digital era. In literature the development of thinking skills in improving the delivery system relative importance subjected to considerable debate. However, most of the studies in the teacher education field have only focused on development of other skills and existing accounts fail to view the development of higher order skills. Teachers must be conversant with the relevant technique needed for teaching higher order thinking skills. There is, however, the concern of this paper to assess the high order thinking skills of prospective teachers. A survey design was designed to collect data with help of 30 items MCQs test that was constructed from B.Ed-4 years course content based on the revised version of Bloom taxonomy. Data taken from 249 prospective teachers were analyzed by exploiting descriptive statistics. The outcomes of the study exposed that the significant strength of the prospective teachers was found at a lower level in thinking skills. No significant difference was observed between boys & girls’ prospective teachers regarding higher order thinking skills (p > 0.05). It was evident that the majority of prospective teacher needed to polish their high order thinking skills specifically evaluating and creativity skills so that they may be able to develop these skills to the next generation and hence they could be successful in their respective field.
Keywords: High Order Thinking Skills (HOTS), Revised Bloom Taxonomy, Prospective Teachers Educators.

An Empirical Study to Measure the Efficiency of District Head Quarter Hospitals of Punjab by Data Envelopment Analysis

The main purpose of the current study is to examine the usefulness level of District Headquarter Hospitals (DHQs) in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. These hospitals are considered the main source of providing health facilities in the districts. “Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)” technique is used to measure the efficiency, which is a “non-parametric technique” used for homogeneous decision-making units. In the present study, Banker Charnes & Cooper (1984) BCC and Rhodes, Charnes & Cooper (1978) RCC DEA models have been used. We estimated input-oriented DEA models. Data of twenty-four (24) DHQs for the year 2016 is used which includes 13 inputs and 6 output variables. The results indicate that all districts hospitals are highly efficient according Banker, Chames and “Cooper (BCC) “and Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) models respectively. This attempt will be helpful for policy makers in the field that how they can increase efficiency in terms of their standard.
Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), Banker Charnes & Cooper (BCC) Model, Charnes, Cooper & Rhodes (CCR), CRS, VRS, DHQs.

Association between Daydreaming and Relationships: A Phenomenological Study

The purpose of this research was to explore the influential link of daydreaming with relations. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents and adults. The sample was comprised five men and five women with the age range of 20-42 years (M, 28.5; SD, 4.4). After recording the data, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), was used for analyzing the data. The analysis highlighted a cyclic link between daydreaming and relations depending upon the content of daydreaming. The model included that positive content of daydreaming leads toward healthy and sound relations while negative content was linked with loneliness. Limitations and Implications of the research is also the part of study.
Keywords: Daydreaming, Relations, Healthy and Sound, Loneliness, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.

Transformative Preservation of Military and its Impacts on Judicial Autonomy and Constitutionalism: A Critical Appreciation in the Context of Pakistan

The constitutional history of Pakistan explicates the role of military is an unavoidable additional stakeholder that impacts the judicial functioning in Pakistan. The fragile democratic system in Pakistan not only allowed direct military rule for more than three dictates, but also effectively transformed and preserved its authority in the civilian governments. This article examined how despotic regimes successfully ruled the country at the cost of the civilian governments, why judiciary validated extraconstitutional actions, how military entrenched and preserved its authority in the civilian governments, and how this interventionist approach created institutional imbalance and adversely affected the spirit of constitutionalism in Pakistan. In order to conduct this research, qualitative and deductive research methodology has been used. With the help of primary and secondary sources, which have been consulted for conducting this research, it is strived to articulate how military and its affiliates have secure itself a dominant position at the expense of other state organs. Hence, the establishment of a democratic government with its organs having real independence fairly gives an assurance of a successful democratic transition, which is the hallmark of constitutionalism.
Keywords: Constitutionalism, Judicial Autonomy, Military Intervention.

Theorizing Sectarian Violence and its Potential Causes: A Case Study of Pakistan

In Pakistan sectarianism is a major threat factor in the social, political, religious, and security order of the country. For the last 27 years the sectarian conflict in Pakistan resulted into hundreds of deaths. But not all the areas of Pakistan are affected by the sectarianism. So this paper strive to understand that why some areas have high rate of sectarian violence as compared to other areas, and which factors have prevented the sectarian violence in many areas and why some areas are more prone to the sectarian conflict. So two structurally similar cities Mianwali and Dera Ismail Khan are selected for a comparative study. In Dera Ismail Khan about 22% of the total population is consisted of Shia Muslims, while in Mianwali about 18% of the total population is consisted of Shia Muslims. Both cities have very different rate of sectarian violence as only one person died in Mianwali, while in Dera Ismail khan number of deaths in sectarian violence are above 500. This paper is looking at sectarian incidents from 2005 to 2015. Qualitative case comparison method is used in this paper.
Keywords: Pakistan, Sectarianism, Dera Ismail Khan, Mianwali.

The Role of Reflective Practices in Improving Learning Outcomes at Secondary School Level in Sindh

The purpose of the study is to find out how Reflective Practice is a critical leadership skill in bringing improvement in students’ learning in the schools providing education at the secondary level in Sindh. As we are living in a challenging era predicting a more challenging future, it is necessary to work for the improvement of the education system. To carry out the research study mixed approach was selected because the study is both exploratory and investigative. The study aims to explore how Reflective Practice is an effective leadership skill and to investigate how this practice can be used effectively to achieve the goal of institutional heads i.e., effective learning. For the collection of data two towns of Karachi were selected i.e., Saddar town and Jamshed town. Karachi is a cosmopolitan city of Pakistan where people from different provinces are settled because of its commercial scope and facilitated lifestyle as compare to other cities of the country. The researcher took the heads of secondary schools as the research population. To draw out the research sample heads/principals of fifty schools were selected from Saddar Town and Jamshed Town. A questionnaire was designed for data collection. The designed questionnaire was served to the heads of the selected schools. The researcher personally visited to get the questionnaire filled and to answer the queries of the research participants. From the results of data analysis, it was found that the heads of secondary schools must inculcate Reflective Practice in their leadership for the improvement of learning outcomes. Based on concrete findings, it was recommended that to Promote Reflective Practice in the schools, leaders should be provided training on the importance of the effectiveness of this approach. This initiative will help the leaders in their professional development and grooming. The leaders will be able to help out teachers to be reflective in their practices that will be resulted in maximum learning outcomes among students.
Keywords: Learning, Improvements, Schools, Sindh.

Multidimensional Personality Assessment of Male Juvenile Delinquents in Prisons at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

The current study primarily focused on the “multidimensional personality assessment of male juvenile inmates in Prisons at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa”. The purpose of the study was to assess the differences between juvenile delinquents and non-delinquent on the levels of problem solving ability, aggression and life satisfaction. The study presumed that juvenile delinquents would be showing high prevalence of independent problem solving skills, aggression and low psychological well-being. The sample of the study consisted of juvenile delinquents (n=100) and comparison group of non-delinquents (n=100). Age of the sample consisted of 12 to 18 years. Instruments used in the study included Independent-Interdependent Problem Solving Scale, Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire and the Flourishing Scale. Chi square was calculated to find out the differences between juvenile delinquents and non-delinquents on Independent-Interdependent Problem Solving Scale; results confirmed that juvenile delinquents show high level of prevalence of independent problem solving than interdependent problem solving (χ2=20.29**). The results of t-test also confirmed that juvenile delinquents show high scores on sub scales of Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire as physical aggression (t=9.01, p=0.000), verbal aggression (t=4.98, p=0.000), anger (t=10.16, p=0.000), hostility (t=4.43, p=0.000), and over all aggression (t=9.44, p=0.000) and low scores on the Flourishing scale (t=-2.81, p=0.005) as compared to non-delinquents. The major implication of this study is on the Juvenile Justice System for the assessment and rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents, as the results can help in policy making to prevent the delinquents from becoming adult criminals.
Keywords: Juvenile Delinquents, Non-Delinquents, Problem Solving Ability, Aggression, Life Satisfaction.
MISBAH KARAMAT and ERUM IRSHAD 224-233 Download(19)

Speech Act analysis of the Rhetorical Questions in CNN Headlines

Present article aims to analyze the selected CNN headlines that use rhetorical questions. In order to analyze the pragmatic functions, the headlines have been treated as speech acts. The news headlines are the speech acts or utterances that aim to perform certain functions and affect the perceptions of the readers. As the headlines of the news stories are always aimed at expressing more than what they are composed of, there are not only the explicit messages carried within the headlines but also the implicit messages which can only be decoded through the thorough analysis of the language devices and the illocutionary forces present within the headlines. The current study focusses only on the rhetorical question markers and the speech acts used in the headlines. The quantitative as well as descriptive qualitative method has been used to analyze the rhetorical question markers, the speech acts and their illocutionary functions in the headlines. It was found that the headlines carry implicit meanings and the rhetorical questions have been used in the to attract the readers and to take them to the hidden indirect messages in the headlines.
Keywords: Rhetoric, Questions, Speech Acts, Headlines.
RABIAH RUSTAM and SARDAR MUHAMMAD 234-247 Download(17)

Investigating Military Effectiveness of India and Pakistan through Clausewitzian Lens

States have utilized their military power as a viable foreign policy tool for many centuries; in modern times, although the number of direct wars is decreasing, military power remains a worthwhile instrument of foreign policy. The Clausewitzian concept relating to the use of force as the ultimate tool of international relations remains relevant nearly 200 years after the Prussian military theorist’s death. This begs the inquiry of measuring military effectiveness. Mapping military effectiveness demands comparison as the yardstick, which in turn raises the question of effectiveness against whom? This study attempts to compare the military effectiveness of India and Pakistan who have engaged one another militarily numerous times in the past 73 years. Both are heavily populous developing countries yet both belong to the exclusive nuclear club which makes even more relevant the significance of comparing their respective military effectiveness. Various studies suggest that India has the potential to be more militarily effective owing to its greater military establishment and budget. Nevertheless, the outcome of recent conflicts and skirmishes tell a different tale. The current study uses Clausewitz’s concept of three levels of warfare to draw a comparison framework between: 2015-2020. The findings of the study reveal that, although Pakistan’s military is half the size of its Indian counterpart and receives one eighth of the financing compared with India. However, the latter is found to lack in military effectiveness in comparison with Pakistan.
Keywords: Pakistan and India Military Comparison; Comparing Military Effectiveness; Clausewitz’s three levels of Warfare; Pakistan’s Military Effectiveness; India’s Military Effectiveness.

The Content Analysis of Class 10th English Text Book in Post Conflict Peace Building Process in District Swat

This research paper aimed to analyze the contents of Secondary School Curricula Class 10th Humanities Textbooks of Textbook Board Peshawar with respect to peace building contents after the decade of the conflict passed. Text books are important contents which reflect the true picture of the society. It is a link between teachers and students; their minds are moulded as the way contents are planned. The main objective of this study was to analyze the contents of secondary school curricula class 10th humanities text book in the context of peace building contents after the decade of the violent conflict ended. This study was qualitative and descriptive in nature. The data were collected from class 10th humanities English Textbook. The collected data were analyzed through frequency and simple percentage. The findings of the study revealed that a strong gape existed in the contents of secondary school curricula (the English Textbook of class 10th) with respect to peace building. This research study put forwarded the recommendations for overcoming the gape of peace building contents in the text book like English in order to provide best outcome of students to in-line them with peace building contents through informal democratic institutes of Pukhtunwali (a Pukhtun way of life ) & it would prove a real education to maintain the peace of Pukhtun Society and would not let it (the big migration in term of peace shattering ) happen in future.
Keywords: Curricula, Text books, Peace Building, Pukhtunwali, Post Conflict.

Impact of Online Classes on Teaching, Learning Behavior of Learners and Teachers during Outbreak of COVID 19: A Study at Undergraduate Level in South Punjab, Pakistan.

The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of corona virus outbreak on educational system and employment of technology in this respect .It also focuses on the problems faced by learners and instructors during the time of the pandemic. Data were collected from 22 teachers and 114 students of higher level studies in the universities of Bahawalpur through a questionnaire and interview. The government has closed the educational institutions to control the spread of virus .This closure of schools was thought to effect the educational system drastically .But Higher education commission suggested distance learning through the use of technology during this crisis. The educational system has taken shift and actions are taken to mitigate the spread of full blown pandemic. The current study throws light on the fear of this change in system of education and investigates the effects of use of technology in teaching learning process .These distance learning applications proved to be very successful in reaching the remote students and deliver the required material and guidance .So technology really helped in keeping the doors of learning open during the time of lock down.it gives us glimpses at how teaching learning process could change for the better by the use of technology and internet.
Keywords: COVID 19, Lockdown, Technology employment, Teaching, Learning, Students Engagement, and Faculty Experience.

The Role of Implied Author in Postcolonial Texts: A Study in the God of Small Things

Implied author as an integral part of narrative structure maintains his presence throughout the text. For an author to be implied means that his authorial presence in the text is different from the presence of the narrator and the real author. The purpose of this research work is to explore the reasons as to what makes Roy as the writer of The God of Small Things implicit in her critique of political and social issues happening in India. This is a qualitative research. While using unit analysis method, well-marked passages have been highlighted from the text. These passages from the text have been matched with the interviews and the books on political and social issues by the same author, Arundhati Roy, by employing intertextuality as a research tool. It has been concluded that the concept of implied author is mostly used by postcolonial writers, writers of women’s studies and the writers of diaspora studies so as to provide an implicit criticism on the society.
Keywords: Implied Author, Implied Criticism, Postcolonial Narratology, Postcoloniality.
ALIA BASHIR and RABIAH RUSTAM 288-295 Download(19)

Use of Complex Phrases and Fluency: A Corpus-based Comparative Analysis of Native and Non-native Fiction Authors

Accuracy and Fluency are two factors which determine the competence in language usage (Srivastava, 2014). Traditional grammarians always emphasize the importance of grammatical rules during language teaching/learning. It results in the development of accuracy than fluency among non-native language users. The paper deals with the issue that accuracy leads non-native language users to produce more complex phrases rather than short phrases, the salient trait of fluency. This study investigates and compares the complexity of noun-phrases and verb phrases between two corpora: one comprises two novels by Pakistani English fiction authors (CPEFA) and the other comprises two novels of the same genre by native authors (CNEFA). Both corpora have been processed upon the n-gram/cluster tool of AntConc (3.5.8) software to observe the frequency of patterns of the said phrases. The results show that Pakistani English fiction authors use more complex phrases as compared to English native authors. The study has strong pedagogical implications for academia in Asian countries to revise the syllabus of English language course and make the teachers/learners realize the importance of short phrases of fixed expression rather than grammatical accuracy with complicated phrases.
Keywords: Corpora, Accuracy, Fluency, Complex-phrase, Frequency.

Impact of Socio-Economic Context on English Language Learning of Grade 5th Level Students

English language learning and socio-economic classes have very close relationship with each other and the latter exerts significant effect on the former. Keeping in view the notion, the present study endeavors to investigate the relationship between these two variables. In this concern, the researchers selected three institutions including Superior Model College (SMC), Read Foundation School (RFS), and Muhamdan Science College (MSC). These institutions are situated in the District Kotli, region Goi which is located at LOC between India and Pakistan. The study was organized in summer holidays. In order to avoid biasness and personal subjectivity, the researchers selected the sample of 41 learners of class 5th by using simple random sampling technique from the three selected institutions of Goi region. It is pertinent to mention that the selected sample belonged to different socio-economic classes. The average age of learner was 9 to 10 year. The number of students selected from SMC, RF and MSC were 14, 13, and 14 simultaneously. The data were collected from the parents and students by using interview as a tool of data collection from the former social group whereas, a close-ended questionnaire was used to collect the data from the latter group of respondents. The data were analyzed by using simple statistical tools. The study found that there is a strong relationship between socio-economic classes and English language learning of grade 5th and it was concluded that the former variable significantly employs the effect on the latter one. Use of modern learning resources and AV. Aids to improve language learning outcomes of students was recommended by the researchers.
Keywords: Socio-economic Context, English Language, Grade 5th, L2.

Teachers’ Epistemological Beliefs and Instructional Practices: A Panorama of Mathematics Classroom

The purpose of the study was to explore the teachers’ epistemological beliefs regarding the Mathematics curriculum and their reflection in classroom practices. The explanatory sequential design of the mixed-method approach was adopted. The sample was selected from public sector secondary schools of Lahore District by using a multi-level sequential mixed sampling design. For the quantitative phase, the sample was selected at two levels. At the first level, 50 secondary schools were selected through a proportionate stratified cluster random sampling technique. Subsequently, 250 teachers were selected through a simple random sampling technique from the selected school. While in the qualitative phase, the researchers observed 35 secondary school teachers’ epistemological beliefs about the Mathematics curriculum that reflect through their classroom practices. Two research instruments (i.e. questionnaire for teachers’ epistemological beliefs and observation protocol) were used to explore the teachers’ epistemological beliefs regarding the Mathematics curriculum and their classroom practices. The quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. However, the qualitative data were analyzed through the qualitative descriptive analysis technique. The researchers found that teachers have sophisticated (strong) beliefs in the dimension of the certainty of knowledge as compare to other dimensions of epistemological beliefs. Moreover, teachers played as an omniscient authority as the source of Mathematical knowledge which was reflected in their classroom practices.
Keywords: Epistemological Beliefs, Mathematics Curriculum, Classroom Practices.
ALMAS SHOAIB and MUMTAZ AKHTER 317-334 Download(31)

Attitude of Teachers towards the Use of Smartphone for English Language Learning at University Level in Punjab, Pakistan

The current study was designed to investigate the attitude of English as Second Language (ESL) teachers towards the use of smartphone for language learning on the basis of various factors involved in it. In this study, an exploratory and mixed method design is used that covers the analysis of qualitative and quantitative data collected together for this study. Sixty nine teachers from 5 public sector universities were selected as participants in accordance with the convenient sampling method. Quantitative data for this study were collected regarding teachers’ attitude towards language learning via smartphone through a questionnaire and qualitative data were collected through a semi-structured interview. Independent samples t-test was applied to do the content analysis of qualitative data. The researchers found that ESL teachers' attitude toward language learning through smartphones was moderate according to the findings of the study and the variable scores (freedom, preferences, practicality, and limitations). Male participants’ preferences were found being higher than that of the female participants. Positive views of ESL teachers were also found about the bright future of language learning with the help of the smartphones. Some of the advantages and disadvantages, like being uneconomical, were also identified and on the basis of these findings it is recommended that smartphones can be used for learning English as a second language in future too, as well as, they can be involved in the extracurricular activities to increase learners’ learning outcomes.
Keywords: Attitude, Gender, Language Learning via Smartphone, ESL Teachers.
SHAHIDA NAZ and MAMUNA GHANI 335-348 Download(22)

Role of Electronic Media in Disaster Management in Pakistan

This research is aimed to investigate the role of electronic media in disaster management in Pakistan. Both stakeholders - electronic media & disaster management - are two different approaches but they became inevitable for each other especially after 2000 with the influx of electronic media in Pakistan. The study employs qualitative research with semi-structured method as In-Depth Interviews with open ended questions. Different Interview Protocol Guides with certain modifications were used for In-Depth Interviews to collect qualitative data. The research underhand widens its canvas with Lahore-based top ten News Channels to collect data from director news, bureau chiefs, and reporters covering disasters. The data was analyzed with the lenses of Thematic Analysis while treating each interview as a complete case to discuss the overall phenomena as a case study analysis as well and to investigate the research problem. According to the findings, electronic media is an integral stakeholder of disaster management cycle, but it is charged of creating sensationalism on important events of disasters in Pakistan. The findings showed owing to non-availability of information sharing mechanism of disaster management departments, the news channels air news relying on their sources. News channels in Pakistan are working with gate-keeping approach during coverage of disasters. However, there is no comprehensive media management policy of the government for coverage of disasters. This research may further open new horizons for future researchers on the aforementioned subject.
Keywords: Disaster Management, Disaster Cycle, Electronic Media, In-depth Interviews, Responsible Media, Thematic Analysis.

Education for All (EFA): The Punjab Government Incentives to Eliminate the Dropout Dilemma

Access to the school is a gateway, to achieve the universally defined goal of Education for All. Schooling for all is a slogan which has attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers of developing countries too. This research attempts to analyze the Punjab government incentives for the betterment of education sector and its positive influence to reduce the dropout phenomena in District Sargodha. The present research explores the perception of the administrators of school education department towards these incentives. A qualitative research method is used to collect the information from selected respondents. One urban and one rural Tehsil of Sargodha district was selected and 22respondents were also selected purposively. The study summarizes that dropout ratio has declined in the past years through the delivery of good quality education and provision of equal right to education in the district. Although the government has planned to achieve the target of maximum enrollment in the province but still the presence of out of school children is a big challenge for the authorities. The study recommends adoption of such measure which can overcome the dropout problem like organizing awareness programs for public, teachers and students related to educational incentives so that the desired educational goals can be attained at the earliest.
Keywords: Pakistan, Education for All, Incentives Dropout, Dilemma.
MARIA AKRAM 369-375 Download(27)

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