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Academy of IRMBR Volume  8, October, 2020
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Covid-19 Lockdown and Hospitality Industry in Pakistan: Business Sales, Unemployment and Sales Tax Revenue to Government

Pakistan’s hospitality sector has emerged as an important source of revenue, witnessing substantial increase in growth and is continues to gain momentum. Due to lockdowns implemented by the government, the hospitality sector was strictly banned for any kind of activity. To study the impact of lockdowns on the hospitality sector, this study is conducted Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. For this purpose two districts are selected i.e. Peshawar and Abottabad. Data was collected through questionnaire from all the business units in all the sub-sectors of the hospitality industry. Direct, indirect and observation methods were used to analyze the data. Monthly and annual sales and tax potential of the hospitality industry were calculated. The results show that lock down has substantial effects on the sales, tax revenue and unemployment in all the sub-sectors of hospitality industry. Due to adverse effects on tax revenue, the government failed to achieve revenue targets. Due to adverse effects on tax revenue, the government failed to achieve revenue targets. Due to high adverse effects on economy, the government should open the hospitality industry by strictly following the SOPs to minimize the spread of COVID-19. The article is original in nature and no study so far carried in the study area. The study is limited to two districts of the country. The reason behind this is that the study considers the whole population and not sample. Other studies may take more areas for research.
Keywords: Covid-19, Hospitality Industry, Sales, Unemployment, Tax Revenue.

COVID-19 Outbreak in Pakistan: Gender, Knowledge, and Preventive Health Behaviors

The study examined the level of COVID-19 knowledge and preventive health behaviors among males and females in Pakistan. It also attempted to find the association between the level of COVID-19 knowledge and preventive health behaviors and its differences among males and females. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Total of 502 (244 females and 258 males) respondents were selected conveniently from Pakistan. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Chi-square test) were used to analyze the data through SPSS. The results showed that most of the females 158 (64.8%) had more COVID-19 knowledge than males. They were also adopting more COVID-19 preventive health behaviors than males. The study findings also showed the level of COVID-19 knowledge was significantly (p<0.05) associated with preventive health behaviors among females but was not significantly associated with males. The study concluded that the gender knowledge gap existed between males and females. Females who had more COVID-19 knowledge were adopting better preventive health behaviors to overt COVID-19 disease. Therefore, there is a need to more focus on providing COVID-19 awareness about causes and precautionary measures through information communication technologies so that COVID-19 spread in Pakistan may be controlled.
Keywords: COVID-19, Knowledge, Health literacy, Health Behaviors, Pakistan.

Axiology in Education: Implication for Pakistani Perspective to Check Radicalism

The commentary of this paper gives a short comprehensive view of value education which actually, is one of the important functions of today’s education. As we realized that moral values direct towards good esteems while skeptical attitudes bring uncertainty, doubt and chaos in life. Pakistani society is in the condition of turmoil in regards to radicalism. This review is journey to figure out suitable axiological framework in education training to address the difficulties of radicalization of outrageous shafts. The impact of axiology on education comprises of dialog about teaching values and the part of teacher-student interaction. The teacher’s responsibility is to provide his pupils a very high familiarity about the value education which will guide them to a very profound and wide-ranging consciousness and mindfulness and will originate a very firm and confirm approach in them so that they may truly involve in developing those values and believe in them. Such behavior will guide them to act rendering to those standards and finally they develop a symbol and logo of the well-known values.
Keywords: Axiology, Values, Education, Radicalism.

Relevancy of Cognitive Domain (Bloom’s Taxonomy) with Science Curriculum at Secondary School Level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

The study aims to see the relevancy of the science curriculum with the cognitive domain taught at the secondary school level. This is a descriptive study where all students enrolled in secondary schools constituted the population of the study that was (N = 46774, including 27840 male and 18934 female). The total numbers of (n = 400) respondents (200 boys and 200 girls) were taken as a sample of the study through a simple random sampling technique to get the data of the study. Self-constructed valid and reliable tests were applied which were constructed in three sections by taking each from Biology, Chemistry, and Physics from the 10th class course books. These tests were administered for validation purposes. Its consistency was ensured by applying the Cronbach Alpha value. The collected data was analyzed via descriptive statistics (simple percentage) and inferential statistics. The inferential statistics, t-test and ANOVA were used to find the difference between the means of gender and districts. The study concluded that students’ cognitive domain was found better at primary three-levels knowledge, comprehension and application but as the sub-levels proceed to the advanced levels, the students’ achievements went down both in male and female students.
Keywords: Secondary School, Science Curriculum, Cognitive Domain, Bloom’s Taxonomy, KP.

Addressing Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety in Overcrowded Classrooms

A considerable body of research points to the fact that communication apprehension is either a cause or a result of poor performance in foreign language. However, despite the large number of congested classrooms throughout the developing world, no significant attempt has been made to address speaking anxiety in overcrowded classrooms. The present mixed-method study was an endeavour in the same direction. We took an overcrowded class of 68 students in a public sector school in Pakistan and experimented with a low anxiety setting in which there were minimal chances of communication apprehension. In addition to the experiment, data from the observation was also used in order to cross validate the findings of the experiment. It was found that the students took more interest in learning English in a low anxiety setting. The findings from the interview also pointed to the fact that language learning gets easier once the affective filter is lowered. The study suggests some strategies to cope with communication apprehension in overcrowded classrooms.
Keywords: Speaking Anxiety, Overcrowded Classes, Foreign Language Teaching, Pakistan.

CPEC, A Flagship Project of BRI: Changing the Economic, and Strategic Status Quo of the Regional Relations

China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a multi-billion project of modern China vision “Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)”. This project will uplift the economic conditions of Pakistan on one side and its strategic importance on the other side. For China it will provide an access to different new markets in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Central Asian Republics etc. But the idea behind this corridor between China and Pakistan is not limited to just economic relations and trade, it is the realization of regional connectivity, growth, and mutual understanding. Recently, most of research is focused on the economic aspects of CPEC and BRI. This article will extend the understanding of BRI and CPEC by exploring the new zones of cooperation, connectivity, and friendly relations. It will also analyze the process of peace in Afghanistan, and geostrategic importance of CPEC for Pakistan and other regional states.
Keywords: CPEC, BRI, Pakistan, Trade, Connectivity, Relations.
SAJAD RASOOL and ZAHID ANWAR 44-51 Download(61)

Traditional Arranged Marriages and Domestic Violence in Rural Dadu Sindh, Pakistan.

This paper aims to discover „lived experience‟, understandings, and perception of men about domestic violence with their dissimilar views about marriages performed in rural Sindh, Pakistan. Overall, male respondents‟ lived experiences have been explored to look at the effects of arranged and traditional marriage approaches in rural setting of Sindh. Moreover, men‟s perception about marriage, socio-cultural and religious beliefs have been explored that how does traditionally arranged marriages influence domestic violence in rural Dadu Sindh, Pakistan. This study is qualitative by its nature where, eleven in-depth one- to- one interviews with both married and unmarried males have been taken from taluka (a unit of district), Dadu. Whereas method of Braun and Calrke; thematic analysis technique is employed to analyze the data. It is universally accepted fact that performing marriage is supposed to be the fundamental right of both genders with their own choice. Nonetheless, if not properly performed this influence domestic violence in the family. The major findings of this study specify that in traditionally arranged marriages, men have almost enjoyed the power and authority over women, however, women have faced domestic violence recurrently by their husband and residual male members of the family in rural society of Sindh, Pakistan.
Keywords: Traditional, Arranged marriages, Gender roles, Domestic violence, Dadu Rural Sindh.
Framing of Christchurch Attacks in International Media: A Comparative Analysis of Muslim and Non-Muslim Press
Christchurch attacks of New Zealand were the Islamophobic attacks of 2019 which raised many questions for not only Muslim nations but also non-Muslim ones. After these attacks the whole international media got indulged into the coverage of these attacks. There were multiple discourses on the issue in the international media reflecting on the context and possible consequences of the attacks. Christ Church attacks gained the attention of the world and reactions from both Muslim and non-Muslim countries were observed. So the present study aimed to analyze the frames used by International Media to know the agenda regarding the representation of issue. The study also aimed to analyze the framing of Muslim narratives in international media by comparing the Muslim and non-Muslim media. Working under the agenda setting and framing theory through content analysis the study concluded that non-Muslim media more highlighted Christchurch attacks and their agenda remained focused to attacks as compare to non-Muslim press, while, Muslim press highlighted the narrative of Muslims in more positive way as compared to non-Muslim press. The non-Muslim press has not given attention to discuss the narratives of Muslims on the issue and was not found playing a part encountering Islamophobia. The frames used to represent the context of Christchurch attacks were pro Muslims and the coverage of these attacks was found in the favor of Muslims that tried to create a soft Image of Muslims by the selected press.
Keywords: Christchurch Attacks, International Media, Framing, Muslim and Non-Muslim Press, Islamophobia.

Impact of Social Media on Linguistic Cognition of Pakistani Youth: Application of Dijk’s Socio-Cognitive Approach

In the 21st century, social media has become a pivot of all human activities and influenced youth and their cognitive abilities including language. Our research work focuses on identifying the nature of the influence social media has on the linguistic choices of youth, keeping in view the relationship between politically more dominant and less dominant youth. Twitter is our selected social media platform to conduct this study. It is mixed-method research with its prime focus on the context of discourse. Van- Dijk’s socio-cognitive model is applied to the data extracted from twitter comprising a single tweet posted by Zulfi Bukhari, a British Pakistani businessman and politician, and replies of 5 young Pakistani people to this tweet. The study finds out that social media discourse framework, as much lexically dense as textbook discourse, incorporates and encourages representative speech acts the most in it, and politically dominant youth, preferring use of endophoric references, produces more commissive discourse with higher lexical density whereas politically less dominant youth prefers using exophoric references and produces more directive speech acts with lower lexical density.
Keywords: Social Media, Twitter, Impacts, Linguistic Cognition, Youth.

Harassment Faced by Female Journalists: A Cross Border Comparative Analysis

Gender is a critical apparatus in studying power associations in organizations. The main objective of the research was to investigate how gender centered assault elevated in the profession of journalism for female journalists. It is important to note that the objective of this study was not to assess the number of women journalists experienced these incidents, but rather to gauge the nature and frequency of these types of violations. The data consisted of the quantitative survey approach through purposive sampling with snowball technique. The questionnaires were distributed among 50 women journalists from Pakistan and England individually. Interrelated to violence. The finding of the research accentuated the cumulative ratio of incidents about violence, harassment, physical, sexual, and digital threats faced by women journalists from both countries. The results demonstrate where the violence acts were committed and who the main perpetrators were. The study suggested that women journalists in the case of violence should be reminiscent of their legal rights as equal citizens in both countries.
Keywords: Harassment, Violence, Security, Education, Female Journalists.

Analyzing the Economic Factors Affecting Poverty in Selected Developing Countries

The main intention of this study was to analyze the economic factors influencing poverty in selected developing countries. Income poverty index and human poverty index were used as dependent variables, whereas economic factors (economic growth, inflation, government spending, foreign aid, income inequality, foreign direct investment, remittances, employment in agriculture, employment in industry, financial development, trade openness and economic globalization) were the explanatory variables. A panel data of 23 developing countries was taken for 20 years i-e 1997-2016. Principal Component Analysis was used to construct poverty indices and System Generalized Method of Moments (System GMM) (one step) technique was used to find a dynamic effect on poverty. The results suggested that the explanatory variables affect poverty negatively as well as positively. Income inequality, government expenditures, and foreign direct investment had a positive relationship with poverty, whereas economic growth, financial development, trade openness, and economic globalization had negative relationship with poverty. Moreover, inflation, foreign aid, remittances, employment in agriculture, employment in industry showed both positive as well as negative relationship with poverty.
Keywords: Income Poverty Index, Human Poverty Index, Financial Development Index, Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kao panel Co-integration.

Modern Technological Driven Discourse: Effect, Issues, and Implications for English as a Second Language University Students in Pakistan

The present research reveals the implications of Modern Technological Driven Discourse, its effects, and the resulting issues on ESL University students in Pakistan. This study unveils the extensive use of modern technologies generating a specific discourse, which has both positive and negative effects on the daily discourse of ESL learners, primarily on their academic English. The data for this research is taken from 100 female university students studying at Govt. College Women University Sialkot in different semesters whose major subject is English. The study aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the effects, issues, and implications of modern technology on ESL University students, so a mixed-method approach is followed to get the accurate picture. The data is collected directly from students through a questionnaire based on closed-ended and open-ended questions. The research aims to discover the effects of the modern applications on the discourse, the issues related to the use of electronic devices for communication, and the effects of the online language in the daily routine. This research will help ESL learners see the implications of modern technological driven discourse, both positive and negative.
Keywords: Technology, Discourse, Implications, Issues, Effects.

Effect of Mathematics’ Teachers’ Pedagogical Beliefs on Student’s Achievement at the Secondary Level

This paper is about the pedagogical beliefs of secondary school mathematics teachers and their effect on students’ achievement. Secondary education is important as it imprints on student’s practical life. It was a quantitative survey research. Researchers used a multi-stage random sampling technique to select the sample, which comprised of 158 teachers from 361 Govt. Secondary& Higher Secondary schools of Lahore, district. For data collection from mathematics teachers, the researchers used a self-constructed questionnaire .Researchers piloted the tool and validated it through experts’ opinion; its reliability coefficient was 0.865. For student’s achievement, we considered the overall percentage results of the class, taught by selected sample teachers in Mathematic (BISE results). The researchers themselves had taken the responses to the questionnaire from selected teachers. The results revealed that there is a positive correlation between teachers’ overall pedagogical beliefs and student’s achievement. Many factors are the cause of these results. Researchers recommend that training is essential to change teachers’ pedagogical beliefs according to the needs of 21st-century students.
Keywords: Mathematics Teachers, Pedagogy, Pedagogical Beliefs, Students’ Achievement, Secondary Level.
RASHIDA BIBI and MUHAMMAD IQBAL 116-123 Download(45)

Acoustic Analysis of English Problematic Short Vowels for Pashto Speakers

The present study tried to analyze the acoustic properties of English short vowels for Pashto speakers. The study aimed to put light on the problematic areas for Pashto speakers learning English short vowels. The study also highlighted those significant points about English vowels where Pashto speakers faced problems and confusion in pronouncing correct English vowels. The obtained and analyzed data through PRAAT software disclosed the problematic areas of English short vowels for Pashto speakers. The study proved that English short vowels like /æ/ and /ʊ/ were more problematic for Pashto speakers. There was difference in both the height and backness of the target English vowels produced by Pashto speakers. Some of the English vowels like /ɪ/, /e/ and /ʌ/ produced by Pashto speakers were nearly native like. The height of these vowels produced was native like but there was a difference in their backness. The vowels /ə/ and /ɒ/ were produced like native speakers with no difference in height and backness of these vowels. This study suggested that Pashto speakers need proper training for acquiring correct pronunciation of English vowels.
Keywords: Acoustic Analysis, Problematic, Short Vowels, English, Pashto Speakers.

Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) as a Teaching Strategy in EFL Classrooms: A Critical Review

Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) is a Cooperative Learning (CL) strategy that requires learners to work together in small groups to comprehend the given material. The current study is a review of the past studies on STAD’s effects in different areas of language in an EFL context. Initially, 39 studies were selected for the review. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria of selecting the more recent, relevant and generalizable ones, seventeen studies were identified. Though the review was not limited to quantitative studies, most of the review studies that came in focus are quantitative. The review suggests that most of the previous studies found support for the use of STAD. However, in some previous studies, STAD could not prove better or worse than the traditional teaching method, and in some studies, other CL strategies outperformed STAD. The study concludes that STAD is an effective teaching strategy, but it may have different results in different contexts, subjects, and participants. The study has opened many areas in the field of CL for future researchers to explain and explore the use of STAD and other CL strategies in EFL and ESL contexts.
Keywords: Cooperative Learning (CL), Effective, Quantitative, Review, Strategy, Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD).

Effect of Mind Mapping on ESL Learners in Learning Vocabulary at Secondary Level in Bahawalpur

Learning brings change in human behavior and plays major role in self-awareness. Majority of the students learn or remember things very slowly due to memory problems. To reduce this issue and speed up the learning of ESL learners, teachers adopt several learning techniques and strategies. A technique that helps the ESL learners to build their memory easily and fastly is through Mind Mapping. As Tony Buzan (2012) stated in his book “The Ultimate Book of Mind Map” about mind map that it works like a contact system, information recovery and data storage device in the mind of students. The main focus of this research is to identify the impact of mind mapping on ESL learners in learning vocabulary at the secondary level in Bahawalpur. It also explores how this tool was used to reduce the issues of ESL learners in learning vocabulary. Mixed research is implemented in which data was gathered quantitatively as well as qualitatively. The design of research was quasi experimental. The population of this study was 50 female ESL Learners and 35 female government teachers. It was done through random sampling. To achieve the objectives, two tools were adopted for this study: (1) pre-test and post-test taken from female ESL Learners and (2) survey questionnaires that were taken from teachers as well as female ESL Learners through random sampling. Feedback from studies show that mind map is a powerful tool which accelerates the learning process and has a positive impact on ESL Learners in learning and constructing vocabulary.
Keywords: ESL Learners, Vocabulary, Mind Mapping.

Education for Disorientation: A Critique of Deformative Role of Euroamerican Schooling for Native Americans in Momaday’s Three Plays

Ideology is the unfelt mode of thinking that determines human behavior and dictates human actions unbeknownst. Boarding schools were in fact the instruments of state’s assimilationist agenda to wean away the next generations of the Natives from ‘primitivism’. Disorientation to their traditional culture was the basis of that education system that purported to initiate them into westernism. Euroamerican teachers at Boarding schools for Native American children were sure that they were doing a great service to humanity, Christianity and civilization by ‘saving’ the Native children from the sins of sloth and indolence. This article analyzes N. Scott Momaday’s Three Plays to explore how Euroamericans manipulated education as a medium of degenerative ideological state apparatus against Native Americans at Carlisle Boarding School and Kiowa Boarding School following Pratt’s philosophy of saving the man by killing the Indian in him.
Keywords: Civilizing Mission, Ideological State Apparatus (ISA), Momaday, Native American Literature, Pedagogy.

Exploration of Scientific Attitude of Science Students at Secondary Level: Need for Scientific Oriented Society

The 21st century is indeed a century of technological and scientific advancements. There is need to be scientifically literate and live our lives scientifically. This demands a scientific attitude which will help to shape our lives and to make informed decisions. This study was carried out to explore the scientific attitude of students at secondary school level. It was a qualitative research where survey method was employed. The respondent of this study were students of 8th,9th and 10th grades. The data was collected from 210 respondents. A standardized scientific attitude questionnaire was used to collect data. It had 36 items and the maximum score a student could score was 180. The data revealed that there is no role of gender in the scientific attitudes both male and female possessed same scientific attitude score. Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference in the scores of students studying in government and private schools. However, it is worth noting that the scientific attitude of students found to be decreased with the increase of their grades. It is recommended to develop scientific attitude of students even at higher grades so that they can think scientifically and apply their knowledge and solve their problems in a scientific manner. It is also recommended for teacher’s scientific orientation so that they can induce scientific attitude among students.
Keywords: Curiosity, Objectivity, Scientific Attitude, Science Education, Scientific Knowledge.

Asymmetric Exchange Rate Pass-Through to Sectorial Inflation Under Fixed Versus Flexible Exchange Rate Regimes: Evidence from Pakistan

This paper examine the exchange rate pass-through (ERPT) to aggregate CPI, Wholesale Price Index (WPI), sectorial CPI inflation under alternative exchange rate regimes in Pakistan by using restricted recursive VAR pattern methodology for the period July 1991 April 2017. The major findings of the paper are: there is moderate ERPT in domestic inflation. ERPT is high in energy, non-food, non-energy, housing, and transport sectors. The study also concludes that ERPT is high under managed floating exchange rate than flexible exchange rate regime. The result further reveals that ERPT to domestic inflation is high when currency depreciates whereas it has comparatively low when the currency appreciates. This confirms asymmetric ERPT in Pakistan.
Keywords: Exchange Rate Pass-through, Sectoral CPI Inflation, VAR, Asymmetric, Energy Prices.
Analyzing the Reasons Behind Code Switching in English Language Classroom: A Case Study from Peshawar, Pakistan
In multilingual classrooms such as in Pakistan it is commonly observed that the teachers of English language keep using first language or native language in the classroom. As it is quite important to know the reasons behind switching the codes while instructing in English language and it affects the process of learning, still the research on this topic is quite scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the main objective of the study is not only to identify how this phenomenon takes place but also to find out the reasons behind code-switching. Quantitative study was conducted to find out the underlying causes and the level of awareness of the teachers about this concept. The teachers of higher secondary level were selected for this study. The study finds that most of the teachers practice code-switching during classroom instructions. Moreover, teachers think that switching to another language makes language teaching easier. Although, the findings of the present study may not be claimed to be final or exclusive, this study provides the much-needed evidence for the need to design a clear language policy regarding the medium of instruction and also the extent of using other languages in our ESL classrooms.
Keywords: Code Switching, Multilingualism, Bilingualism, ESL classroom, Peshawar.

Husbands’ Involvement in Domestic Chores and Family Conflicts: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

Domestic gender roles have been associated to increase family conflicts. In line with previous evidence, gender division of roles has been contributed to the family conflicts. This study helps to see the relationship between husbands’ involvement in domestic chores and family conflicts in adults. The sample of 400 men and women was selected through random sampling technique. The self-administered, husband’s involvement in domestic chores scale and family conflicts scale were used. The results showed family income and husbands’ involvement in domestic chores was significantly associated with level of family conflict. However, logistic regression demonstrated that family structure and husbands’ involvement in domestic chores were strong predictors of family conflicts. Current study also found that respondents living with joint family systems are more likely to have family conflicts than nuclear family. In addition, more involvement of husband in domestic chores was source of more family conflicts. This study further explains the dynamics of gender division of housework and family conflicts in context of Pakistan.
Keywords: Domestic Chores, Family Conflicts, Husband, Pakistan.

Exploring Dyslexia at Primary Schools: A Case Study of English Language Classrooms in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Classrooms are characterized by and identified with learners having peculiar eccentricities and idiosyncratic leanings towards learning. That is an indispensable feature and constituent component of almost every classroom from elementary through secondary to tertiary levels. The present study is aimed to explore and examine the prevalence of dyslexia among students at the primary level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Reasons behind such learning obstructions are highlighted and, in effect, remedial measures are suggested to cope with such barriers to learning. The study has invoked a mixed-method design to propose sensible solutions to the impediment(s). The population of the study was English language teachers employed at and students enrolled in the primary classes of public sector schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Purposive sampling technique was used for the selection of the said sample. The screening test revealed that 8% of students scored high in it, and were identified to have dyslexia. The study concluded that elementary school teachers are not equipped to resolve multiple classroom issues because of dyslexics. Because the problems involved are classroom management, time control, to follow the code of conduct, completion of course(s) on time, and engaging the attention of the affected dyslexics. The study has recommended that teachers need to deal with the dyslectics with compassion and encouragement, and appreciate their classroom performance. Teachers and parents must also be trained for coping with such learners because they need special attention.
Keywords: Reading problems, Dyslexia, Reading, Writing, Learning Problems.

Developing and Validating Training Programs Challenging Terrorism and Emotional Stability of University Teachers and Students in Pakistan

The main emphasis of the study was to develop and validate training programs for university teachers and students challenging terrorism and emotional stability. The objectives under investigation were to develop training programs and to ensure their effectiveness. Training manuals were developed in the line of need assessment for teachers and students. The usefulness of training manuals was confirmed through expert opinion and pilot testing. The sample for pilot testing was consisted of 16 emotionally affected teachers and 24 students representing Government College University, Faisalabad. The study practiced self-developed instruments and owned experimental design based on repeated measure paired sample t test. The results from pre-intervention groups and post-intervention groups ensured that training manuals were useful and effective in developing emotional stability among teachers and students. The study established that Higher Education Commission should adopt training manuals for emotional wellbeing of teachers and students in universities which were the victim of terrorism.
Keywords: Development, Validation, Training, Manual, Terrorism, Emotion, Stability.

Problem-Based Learning: Effect on Prospective Teachers’ Critical Thinking

The main purpose of this study was exploring the effects of problem based learning on prospective teachers’ critical thinking. It was an experimental study. Quasi experimental research design of pre- and post-test was used in this study. Pre-test and post-test were taken from both group, whereas, treatment was provided to experimental group of the study. The population of the study comprised on all future teachers in Department of Education International Islamic University in the Spring semester. Sixteen week were spent in this experiment. For this study 60 students of the same department were taken as a sample of the study. These students were divided into two groups, one is control group and 2nd group was experimental group. One group was selected from MA Education 3rd semester and 2nd group was selected from BS Education 6th semester. The educational research subject was selected for this experiment. For this research study pre-test and post-test were constructed consisting 12 statements about critical thinking. When semester was started pre-test was conducted from all the respondents who were the parts of sample. And post-test was taken at the end of the semester. Descriptive statistics i.e. standard deviation, mean score, and t-test were used for analysis. The analysis depicts that prospective teachers developed critical thinking skills during the course. It is recommended that Problem Based Learning can be utilized for teaching in pre-service teacher education programs.
Keywords: Problem Based Learning, Future Teachers, Critical Thinking, Effect, Quasi-experimental Research.
FOUZIA AJMAL, N. B. JUMANI and SAMINA MALIK 246-253 Download(30)

School Environment and Home Violence: Analysis of at Risk Students at Secondary Level

The purpose of the study was to analyze at risk students due to school environment and violence. The study was descriptive in nature and survey method was applied for the collection of data. The population of the study was three thousand six hundred and one (3601) headmasters working in Govt. Boys Secondary Schools of Punjab; and nineteen thousand two hundred sixty five (19265) secondary school teachers working in Govt. Boys secondary schools of Punjab. The sample of study was consisted of 81 headmasters and 324 secondary school teachers. Two questionnaires was used, one for headmasters and second for secondary school teachers. Content validity of the questionnaire was ensured with the consultation of education experts and senior headmasters. Cronbach Alpha was used to find out the internal consistency and reliability of the research instrument through SPSS version 20. Mean and standard deviation was used for the analysis of data. It was found that the causes of home violence are blaming, coercion, unruliness and fights at home and Poor quality teaching, poor classroom environment, ineffective teaching method and poor assessment are causes of poor school environment. It is recommended that teachers’ consolation, counseling of parents, teachers' training and PTM are the remedies of domestic violence to tackle at-risk students. Favorable classroom environment, appropriate furniture, headmasters’ training, class regularity, monitoring of teachers, rules regulations, quality teaching, teachers’ training and suitable teaching method are the remedies of poor school environment to tackle at-risk students.
Keywords: School Environment, Home Violence, At Risk Students, Secondary Level.

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