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Academy of IRMBR Volume  6, Feburary, 2018
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download

Macroeconomic Variables and Poverty in Pakistan: Implications for Rural-Urban Migration

This study focuses on the identification of different macroeconomic variables impact on poverty in Pakistan. Using the data from 1972 to 2015, Johansen’s co-integration technique is utilized to find out the long run relationships among GDP, education, investment and inflation. Empirical findings prove the long run relationships among poverty and among GDP, education, investment and inflation positively changed rural to urban migration. All the determinants affect poverty positively and significantly except inflation which is insignificant with correct positive sign. Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) has been used for the analysis of short run dynamics. In the short run, only inflation and investment affects the poverty insignificant. However, our study supports the structulist point of view of inflation and investment shows insignificant results. Keywords: Poverty, Education, Investment, Inflation, GDP.

Product Diversification and Capital Structure: Evidence from Manufacturing Firms in Pakistan

Current study empirically examines the relationship between corporate strategy and capital structure, specifically product diversification and leverage ratio of manufacturing firms in Pakistan. By using sample data of 137 listed firms, including 51 product diversified firms and 86 focused firms, Ordinary Least Square (OLS) model is used for examining the relationship between a firm‟s corporate strategy and capital structure. Descriptive statistics show that diversified firms have more leverage than those of focused firms, which is consistent with the coinsurance effect theory. However, empirical findings depict that diversification has significant negative relationship with debt ratio as diversified firms have more internal sources of funds therefore, with increase in diversification, dependency on debt (out sourcing) decreases. Keywords: Product Diversification, Capital Structure, Firms, Pakistan.

Applied Design-based Research Approach to Explore High School Mathematics Proofs without Words: Using the Sum of Infinite Geometric Progression as an Example

Educators for mathematical education reform call for an emphasis on teaching reasoning and proving in school curricula, yet when learning mathematics proofs, students are often feeling intimidated and frustrated, and lose interest in studying mathematics. This study aims to increase students' interest in learning mathematics proofs using the presentation of digital teaching materials, by turning Proofs Without Words of the Sum of Infinite Geometric Series into Flash animation. The result may serve as a lively teaching resource for math teachers. Additionally, Design-based Research (DBR) is adopted in this study, and with the help of the cyclical process of Proofs Without Words (PWWs) research team discussions, teachers’ interviews, evaluation and reflection, and continuous revision, a proper digital teaching material is developed to assist teachers and students in establishing a teaching and learning model that is apart from the traditional method, so that the goal of effective learning is achieved. Thus, the contributions of this study are to let students experience palpably the marvel of mathematics proofs using digital materials with multi-media effects, and to improve mathematical literacy of the public through online sharing. Keywords: Proofs without Words (PWWs), Design-based Research (DBR), Flash, The Sum of Infinite Geometric Series.
CHIH-NUNG HSU and TANG-JUNG LEE 79-89 Download(281)

The Green Practice Index of the Faculty of a State Educational Institution in the Philippines

The paper provides a clearer picture of the extent the teachers demonstrate tangible and inspiring examples of practices that work towards a system-based and sustainability-oriented paradigm which is an embodiment of resource-efficient green campus, culture, curriculum, research and community extension. It further identifies some factors that relate to these green practices. The study adopted a descriptive research design. It utilized 115 respondents from the total 162 teachers of Carlos Hilado Memorial State College using the systematic sampling method. The validated and reliability-tested Green Practice Index (GPI) was used as a tool for data gathering. The instrument demarcated five (5) measurable parameters reflecting the practices that promote green campus, culture, curriculum, research, and community extension. The study employed the average standard deviation, T-test, one-way ANOVA, Point Biserial, and PPM for the statistical treatment of data. Generally, the faculty demonstrated a moderately high level of green practice index. The green culture earned a very high index while green research garnered a very low index. Sex caused significant variation in the faculty green practice in the areas of culture, curriculum, and community extension. The educational attainment resulted in notable difference in the faculty green community extension practices. Accordingly, sex and educational attainment were found as correlates of the green practice index of the faculty. The findings set out the College to come up with the systematic planning of stratagems to formalize establishment of norms, institute training programs, fix allocation of funds and sources, and align priorities for its faculty to exemplify the ideal environmental practices. Keywords: Green Campus, Green Culture, Green Curriculum, Green Research, Green Community, Green Extension, Green Practice Index, State Educational Institution.
RONORA S. MALAGA 90-103 Download(282)

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