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Academy of IRMBR Volume  5, January, 2017
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S.No. Title Authors Pages Download

T. S. Eliot’s Murder in the Cathedral: A Reconsideration

T. S. Eliot composed Murder in the Cathedral, for the Canterbury celebration and recounts the story of the murder of clergyman, Thomas Beckett (1118-70) by Henry II's associates. It is mostly an expanded expressive thought of the correct home of worldly and profound power, of the commitments of religious adherents to the summons of the State, and of the likelihood that devotion can be egotistical unto sin. It is this sort of interaction and the encounter amongst Church and State which educated society at its most advantageous. It was men like Beckett and the Knights, offering to die in releasing their individual obligations, who made the colossal Western establishments. Insofar as there were men similar to Beckett for the State to figure with, to remain as good illustrations and human reprimands to the force of the State, there existed a genuine balance to the most noticeably bad abundances of that power. In fact, such was the heaviness of Christian aversion against this murder Henry needed to scourge himself openly to make amends for it. This article endeavours to look at T. S. Eliot's Murder in the Cathedral particularly as far as the traditional picture of the turning wheel and still point. Keywords: Modern Verse Play, T.S. Eliot, Murder in the Cathedral, the Turning Wheel, the Still Point.
DLNYA A. MOHAMMED and MARIWAN N. HASAN 1-8 Download(650)

Educational Dilemma in a Market-Model Global Context

This study, socio-educationally, claims that civilization and culture are interrelated, yet they are neither concomitant nor inseparable. This proposes two educational models for the current study: a market-based civilizational model mostly targeting money and interest, and a village-based cultural one that would rather value human refinement and social betterment. Knowledge, power and money are collective entities that need to be handled collectively. While from a market model perspective, they are mostly hyper-individually viewed; more humane collective points of view need to be incorporated in crucial decisions addressing those entities. Learning is a process that shapes society into certain systems. Suggested strategies would be about enhancing and cultivating the shared qualities among learners and teachers, or co-humans on a larger scale in a proposed village model. Thus, creativity needs to aim at the utmost possible co-humane interests. Here, education is not merely about logic, but more efficiently about how to make constructive judgments, choices, or decisions, as well. Contemporary education systems need not to address individual illiteracy in a scientific sense only, but also the issue of ignorance about communal concerns. Keywords: Civilization and Culture, Market-Model vs. Village-Model, Hyper-individualism vs. Co-humanism, Logic and Judgment, Ignorance and Illiteracy, Mattle.
EFL Learners’ Perceived Perceptions and Preferences of Corrective Feedback, Studying in Saudi Arabia
Although a growing body of research has investigated the effect of written corrective feedback (WCF) on the writing accuracy but studies investigating the learners’ perceived perceptions and preferences, as mentioned by some researchers also, are scarce. This study was conducted to find out the perceived perceptions and preferences, of Secondary School level (SSC) level, English as Foreign Language (EFL) students, studying in Pakistan International School Taif, Saudi Arabia. In this quasi-experimental study, fifty-nine SSC level EFL learners participated. To generate the required data Likert-scale questionnaire, containing forty-seven questions, was developed and administered. The results of the questionnaire regarding participants’ perceived perceptions and preferences that secured mean value above four, have elaborated that most of the participants find the corrective feedback very useful; show satisfaction with its usage; like when the teacher corrects all the errors; ask the teacher when they need explanation; pay attention to the teachers’ comments and pay attention to the errors, when they get back their compositions. About 50% learners like to get marks along with CF on their compositions because it shows their efficiency level. Keywords: Written Corrective Feedback, English as Foreign Language, Error Correction, Writing Accuracy, Errors.
MUHAMMAD YASEEN 18-31 Download(746)

Children in Ted Hughes’s Poetry

This paper explores how Ted Hughes’s poetry for children developed since its publication. It touches upon his effort from his earlier conventional rhyming verses, like; “Meet My Folks”! and “Nessie the Mannerless Monster”, to the developed free verse “animal poems” for older readers of “Season Songs”, “Under the North Star” and the farmyard fable “What is the Truth”? This study discusses that the later lyrical verses for youngsters where Hughes used to rhyme again, “The Cat and the Cuckoo” and The Mermaid’s Purse, embody an underrated last stage of Hughes’s effort for younger learners which is seldom argued by critics. The discussion reflects Hughes’s altering view to the notion of the “children’s poet” at various stages of his career. Throughout Hughes’s writing reference is made about the link between children and poetry, such as Poetry in the Making, and to differentiate progresses in his poetry for older people. Keywords: Ted Hughes, Modern Poetry, Rhyming Verses, Children’s Poetry & Free Verse.

Culture and Nature: Thomas Hardy’s The Return of the Native

Victorian industrialization and its effects on the environment have been criticized by both contemporary and modern critics, writers and many other social commentators. However, little research has been done from an eco-critical perspective to make any claims about the Victorian approach to ecology. Very few people, such as John Parham, have analyzed the representation of the early-and-mid-Victorian novelists’ ecological representation. This study investigates the Victorian representation of the relationship between man and his environment or writing and land in Thomas Hardy’s The Return of the Native (1884). Analyzing Hardy’s work helps learning about the Victorian social and ecological criticism on the man-environment linkage that could be biologically and psychologically intriguing and strange when it comes to the question of placing man in the world. The research will show how someone like Hardy portrayed his ecological consciousness through a mere portrayal of any harmony or disharmony of man with his environment. Through the scholarships relating to the fictional region of Wessex in Hardy’s fiction, one also understands the place and importance of Egdon Heath as the central setting and also a living character in the novel in relation to the characters. The Return of the Native encourages the notion that setting is an essential and central element in human life which consciously or unconsciously has direct impact on their life. Discussing different characters and their different qualities and the roles the characters are given in relation to the natural world surrounding them is immensely important to understand the man-environment linkage. This essay shows the ways and reasons that Hardy portrays the representation of man’s true place in nature focusing on Egdon Heath and the significant of such representation in human life. Keywords: Land, Eco-criticism, Culture, Nature, Environment, Eco-system & Writing.
SAMAN ALI MOHAMMED 41-51 Download(798)

The Significance of Literary Texts in Pedagogy of English Language in EFL/ ESL Classrooms

Nowadays, one of the major concerns of teachers is usually about the material they intend to present to the students. The challenge that faces English classes is literature. The benefits of using literary texts in English language classes outweigh its shortcomings that specified by some literary critics, for instance Chnara Khdhir and Mariwan Hasan pointed out this truth in their paper entitled, “The Importance of Literary Texts in Teaching Language in EFL Classes: The Waste Land as an Example”, which we strongly agree that one can easily learn a language through the literature of the target language. To learn a language one needs to study reading, writing, listening and speaking; the four skills of the English language, which will all be available in literature. Materials are provided, which are sufficient for these skills, but literary texts have ascertained a worthy source that accomplishes these abilities. Moreover, culture information is inferred via language learning, and yet with comprehension of society. This is a characteristic of language that requires materials associating with culture. Culture is a basis for literature; namely; it does not merely imply that literature deals with culture, but literature about the culture of any specific user of that language. Furthermore, one can say the use of literary texts in language classes inspires more attentive and determined language learning. Thus, the students are not merely uncovered to the actual usage of language, but also they become critical scholars. As such, this study argues the causes behind focusing on the use of literary texts as a significant source in teaching English language. Keywords: Literary Texts, English language, Culture, Society & Language skills.
BAHRA T. RASHID and MARIWAN N. HASAN 52-57 Download(426)

Satire on Modern Politics in an Enemy of People

The title of this paper is “Satire on Modern Politics in An Enemy of People” by Henrik Ibsen . the subject matter of the thesis is political corruption. This issue is still continuing in almost all Middle East countries. The majority of people are suffering due to the corrupted politicians. They work for the sake of their own interest not for common interest. The thesis focuses on some examples of this play which could be true for current issue in many countries. The main purpose of the writer is to aware people to have knowledge about what happens to them. What the corrupted politicians do against people. Although this play was written in 19th century, it’s a very good example of the nowadays life. What the writer mentions at that time is happening again nowadays in most of the countries in the world. Keywords: Politician, Satire, Corruption & Enemy of People.

Determinants of International Students’ Academic Performance with Cross Culture Adoption: A Study of Pakistani Students in Chinese Universities

The purpose of this was study was to investigate the relationship between cross culture adoption and students’ performance. This study also examined the impact of between cross culture adoption and students’ performance. Literature review concludes that researcher have identified the relationship among variables with strong support of findings of previous studies. Theoretical framework provides strong relationship among variables with evidence of theories. Hypotheses were developed with literature evidence. Population of this research was used current students of Pakistani national who are studying in Chinese universities. This study was used stratified and sample random sampling. Survey was used to collect primary data with research instrument (five point likert scale) from students and 435 sample size was to be used. Research model was evaluated with correlation and regression and to be used to identify the relationship of variables. This study result indicates negative significant impact of between cross culture adoption on students’ performance and researcher accept hypothesis. This study provides empirical evidence for future research. Keywords: Academic Performance, Pakistani Students, Chinese Universities.

Mysticism in Some of Sylvia Plath’s Poems

This study reveals insight into mystery in some of Plath's poems. Plath is a contemporary poet who has a place with the post-Christian age writers of magical verse, yet her magic is not essentially characterized in the conventional sense. Rather than looking for an extraordinary union with God, she sets off on her Journey to inundate in the inalienable stream of water and lower types of creatures, for example, creatures and plants. In endeavouring to clarify otherworldliness in Plath's verse, perspectives of to some women's activist pundits, for example, Stout and Bundtzen, extend our insight that the gender of the poet is to be considered. Despite the fact that Plath offers with male poets her idyllic vision of "magical innateness," her voyage uncovers an unmistakable character which has a place with a female writer, the one driving her towards free imaginative personality. Textual approach is used in the analysis of the poems. Keywords: Mysticism, Sylvia Plath & Contemporary Poetry.

Perceived Social Support in Middle School Students

Research on school climate has among its purposes to contribute to improving the quality of education, one of the main challenges of the Mexican educational system, particularly at the level of basic education. Our aim was to explore the relationships between the dimensions of school climate of perceived social the support teacher-student, support student-student and opportunities for autonomy and academic performance. The study was non-experimental and correlational. The sample consisted of 325 students from a middle school in northeastern Mexico, with a mean age of 13.4 years who responded to a scale of perceived school climate. The results show that students perceive great teacher support associated with student-student support and opportunities for autonomy. In addition, we found that academic achievement related to teacher support and opportunities for autonomy. These data are consistent with the country's educational policy, which emphasizes the teacher's role as facilitator of student learning to improve learning outcomes and the quality of education. Keywords: School Climate, Perceived Social Support, Support Teacher-Student, Support Student-Student, Opportunities for Autonomy.

Modern Humans Spiritual Dilemma in Eliot’s Four Quartets

The twentieth century has witnessed political and social unrest and change. The features of the age are that society, to a high extent, was unreceptive to spiritual life. The spiritual morals appeared to be abandoned or replaced for the materialistic ones based on concrete facts rather than spiritual and unseen, which created a chaotic society which had to face increasing confusion that was significantly noticed in the burst of the First World War. The war resulted in the deterioration of the modern society with the abandonment of religious, moral and spiritual values. Eliot was aware of the problems of modern civilisation that enclosed humans with a number of tenets and beliefs wrought randomly to confront the social and political ideologies of the twentieth century. Eliot believes that modern ideologies are inadequate and useless replacements for religious belief and sees that community should be built not upon power and its exploitation, but upon an advanced spiritual and moral system of values. This study attempts to examine how Eliot's Four Quartets emphasises the likelihood of spiritual revival and gives a helpful prediction of hope. The key idea of this poem is that if modern humans are seeking for peace of mind, they will be able to achieve it, when they admit the conviction that peoples’ peace only lies in God's will. Keywords: Belief, Modern Period, Crisis, Moral Values, Religious Values, Deity & Spiritual Morals.
LATEF SAEED NOORI and MARIWAN N. HASAN 91-97 Download(475)

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