An Investigation of Virtual and Hardcopy Persian Rendering of English Novels: A cultural approach
Virtual rendering of novels is an emerging phenomenon in translation studies in which novels are actually translated and uploaded chapter by chapter at websites and weblogs. Regarding the rate of chapters downloaded, the acceptability of virtual translation among novel readers is investigated. As far as translation norms are concerned, however, there seems to be no control over the process or the product of translation in this type of rendering. That is due to plenty of limitations imposed on legal publication of such translated texts in the form of a hardcopy. Thus, virtual translators tend to publish their products online-a much easier way, without any academic supervision. Taking this lack of control into consideration, it is assumed that there should be some differences between virtual and hardcopy translations of novels in all aspects. Accordingly, based on the distinction between two key cultural strategies of domestication and foreignization proposed by Venuti (1998a), the present study explores the ways in which foreign literature has been portrayed in Persian through virtual and hardcopy translations of novels. Focusing on these two strategies and investigating four English novels with their Persian virtual and hardcopy translations, it is revealed that domestication is the dominant strategy in hardcopy renderings, whereas virtual renderings tend to make use of foreignization more frequently.
Key Word: Domestication, Foreignization, Virtual Translation, Novels, Culture Specific Items.