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Academy of IRMBR Volume  6, August, 2018
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Does Having The Knowledge and Awareness About HIV/AIDS Influence the Timing of First Sexual Experience Among Adolescent Orphans and Vulnerable Children in South-East Nigeria?

Anambra and Imo states in South-east Nigeria have high burdens of HIV and AIDS. The 2014 National HIV Sero-prevalence sentinel survey reported 9.7% for Anambra and 7.5% prevalence for Imo compared to a national average of 3.1%. Both states also have high burdens of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC). This study assessed how HIV/AIDS Knowledge among OVC has shaped their attitude and perceptions towards the pandemic and affected their decisions on their first sexual experience. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select survey respondents. A cross-sectional mixed research method using structured questionnaires and focus group guidelines was used to collect data from 1362 adolescents. Data were analyzed using the SPSS. Orphans and vulnerable children were at an increased risk of early sexual debut and greater chances of HIV infection despite high levels of HIV/AIDS awareness and knowledge. Qualitative data showed that many vulnerable adolescents had sexual intercourse as early as age 10. Their sex partners were neighbors and friends aged 19 years and below. Although adolescent OVC have high knowledge about HIV and AIDS, this knowledge has not led to delay in timing of first sexual experience. We recommend that OVC programs should include comprehensive reproductive health education and reward-based cash transfers to enable adolescents take care of some immediate vital needs and reduce the chances of sexual networking for survival. Keywords:Knowledge, HIV, Sexual Experience, Orphans, Nigeria.

Teaching Practices in a Culturally Diverse Geometry Classes

In this paper, we investigated the different Geometry teachers’ teaching practices in a culturally diverse Geometry classes in the Science and Technology (S&T) curriculum of Prince George's County Public Schools (PGCPS), Maryland USA and established relationship towards Geometry achievement. Six Geometry classes participated in this study and these classes constituted a total of 198 students and three Geometry teachers including myself. Our actual Geometry teaching practices and the formal class observations as well as interviews that we have conducted in other S&T Geometry classes were used as the data in this study. Documentary analysis was used in determining the students’ achievement in Geometry. The following are the cultural backgrounds of the S&T students: Blacks/African- Americans; Asians; Hispanics/Latinos and Whites/Caucasians. The study revealed the following teaching practices that recognized the importance of including students’ cultural references in all aspects of teaching and learning (Moll, 2008): Positive perspectives on parents and families; Teaching within the context of culture; Culturally-mediated instruction; Communication of high expectations; Student-centered instruction; Reshaping curriculum; and Teacher as facilitator. This paper further explains each of the teaching practices in detail and provides some concrete examples. It was found out that teaching practices of the S&T Geometry teachers as effectively implemented in a culturally diverse Geometry classes had a significant relationship towards Geometry achievement at 5% level of significance. It is concluded that culture is central to teaching and learning and it shapes the thinking process of students. Moreover, teaching practices that acknowledge and respond fundamental cultures offer equitable access to mathematics education for students from all cultures. Keywords: Teaching Practices, Culturally Diverse, Geometry Classes, Geometry Teachers and Science & Technology Curriculum.

Appraisal of Independent and Interdependent Problem- Solving Skills on Role-Based Performance of University Non-Academic Staff.

Organisational researches are now considering roles or competences as alternative to concept of job. This study therefore investigated independent and interdependent problem-solving skills as predictors of role-based performance. A survey research method utilizing an ex-post factor design was adopted for the study. Participants were 210 non-academic staff selected through purposive sampling in a private university in the South-West. Data was collected using the Independent and Interdependent Problem-Solving Scale and the Role-Based Performance Questionnaire. Both instruments were validated using Nigerian samples. Item validity was also run on each item and all items showed to be valid. Results of the hypotheses analysis at p<.05 showed that independent problem solving skill reported significantly higher role-based performance than interdependent problem solving skill. Independent and interdependent problem-solving skills significantly predicted role-based performance. Age was also found to predict role-based performance. Despite reports on the effectiveness of team work, it is recommended that independent problem-solving skills receive more focus in terms of training and development efforts. Keywords: Independent and Interdependent Relationships, Problem-Solving Style, Job Performance, Role Theory, University Staff.

Challenges of a Mexican Knowledge Transfer Office, Immersed in a Public University. A Study Case

In this paper, an analysis of the environment of this Knowledge Transfer Office, KTO, of the Autonomous University of Morelos State, UAEM, is presented. This KTO was been officially launched in 2013 to assist researchers (about 500 PhD) in managing their intellectual assets in ways that facilitate their transformation into benefits for society, for UAEM and for themselves. In a similar way than TTOs of United States of America and Europe, KTO should bridge the gap between research and innovation in UAEM, Mexico. The initial model was inspired from best international practices, involves establishing relationships with firms, funding support private and public, advancing and collaboration in intellectual property (IP), licensing, promote researchers to create spin-off using their own discoveries, and, obviously, generating net royalties for the University, researchers and collaborating partners. Analysis of 5 years of KTO and UAEM, including the transition stage of KTO, shown good results in intellectual protection (IP), indirect benefits and changes in cultural behavior, but without success cases. It is clear than more time is needed to consolidate this office. We discuss in this paper main results and difficulties found, for instance, lack of interest of the Mexican industry for UAEM patent portfolio, shortage of technology transfer people with advanced degrees and national and inside UAEM policies oriented to reward publishing, not transfer, between others. A new approach for KTO is recommended better adapted to Mexico’s innovation system. Keywords: Management of Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Technological Innovation, Technology Transfer, Intellectual Property.
The Etymology of Academic Theft on Formal Academic Exercises: An Artificial Intelligence Application of Smart Technology
Academic theft emerges in today’s formal academic exercises. Manual detection becomes difficult to recognize the origin of plagiarized items due to a large number of possible sources online. Although, free online plagiarism detectors have been flooding in the web today. However, they feature limited passages to examine. This study investigated the etymology of academic theft on students’ formal academic exercises in a government-funded university in the Philippines involving artificial intelligence application of an external online plagiarism sensor. Specifically, it determined the similarity index, number of fragments that are suspected unoriginal texts, and the number of sources of the plagiarized items. Result revealed that formal academic exercises registered unoriginal texts taken from various sources on the web and other scholarly databases. It manifests that academic writers commit malpractice in writing exercises. It suggests that the university should craft policies on academic integrity to ensure the quality of and competitive scholarly outputs. Keywords: Plagiarism Detector, Similarity Index, Artificial Intelligence.

University Management System: Organizational Commitment and Performance Influences

The success of every higher education institution is manifested by its quality of teaching, high performance of students, institutional achievements, and continual improvement which are interdependent to the institutional collaborative efforts and interconnection among members of the school community in providing quality control and effective management system. This study aimed to investigate the Jose Rizal Memorial State University Management System and Its Organizational Commitment and Performance Influences of School Year 2015 – 2016. The descriptive survey and correlational methods of research were used in the study with the aid of the questionnaire checklist. The respondents of the study were the 329 regular faculty members of Jose Rizal Memorial State University System. The instrument used to gather data was composed of four parts, namely: personal profile, management system scale, organizational commitment scale, and the JRMSU-HRMO-Performance Appraisal System for Instructors/Professors Scale. The statistical methods used in the study were the frequency counting, percentage, weighted mean, Kruskal–Wallis H-Test, Mann–Whitney U-Test, and Spearman Rank–Order Correlation Coefficient. The classification, analysis and interpretations of the gathered data revealed the following findings; Faculty – respondents perceived that the management system of Jose Rizal Memorial State University System is “much effective” along governance and management, quality of teaching and research, support to students, relations with the community, and management of resources. Faculty members of Jose Rizal Memorial State University System are “excellent” in their performance in both instruction and contribution. Faculty members of the university “strongly agreed” on their affective and normative commitment but only “agreed” on their continuance commitment to the university. Similar investigation should be conducted evaluating faculty commitment when difficulties emerge. Keywords: Governance, Quality of teaching, Affective, Normative, Continuance, Descriptive, Correlational.
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