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Academy of IRMBR Volume  5, April, 2017
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The Interpretation of “Umbrella Clause” in Investment Treaties

The purpose of this article is to discover the meaning of the umbrella clause, the root of the idea of this clause and formulation of umbrella clauses. Moreover, the legal consequences of this clause. Next, explore how international arbitration tribunals interpret the “umbrella clause”. This article has employed descriptive and comparative methods. The following materials are referenced as part of this article: books, journal articles, cases, reports, legislations. This article has found that Umbrella clauses seem very significant in international investment field, by attracting foreign investors since give them more protection under treaty claims. Moreover, this article has discovered that, the international tribunals follow three main approaches with regard to interpret this clause, which include: First, a narrow scope of the interpretation as adopted in SGS v. Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Secondly, the wider scope, for example in Enron Corp. v. Argentina based on this method the umbrella clause means what is says. Thirdly, a balance scope of the interpretation in which the tribunal considered umbrella cause applies as to a contract in which state as a sovereign not as a merchant, for instance, in El Paso v. Argentina. Finally, this article has found that there is no constancy with regard to formulation the umbrella clause. This article contributes to increase the understanding of the umbrella clause and discover the main approaches with regard to interpret this clause. Keywords: Umbrella Clause, the international investment law, bilateral investment treaties, BITs, ICSID, OECD, VCLT, UNCTAD, UK.

The Study of Job Satisfaction Level among Universities Academicians

Higher education is crucial for the survival and advancement of nations. Teaching profession in higher education facing problems related to faulty members’ job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is known as the degree of the individual’s satisfaction of his/her needs. The present research aims investigate job satisfaction among Zarqa University academicians in Jordan. During the past years, multiple methods were utilized to collect data to determine the level of job satisfaction among university staff. This study was conducted using survey research methods. Demographic characteristics of academicians were also collected for the study. For further research, a wider coverage of the number of public and private universities should be done to get a more comprehensive result. A comparative study between academicians job satisfaction in private and public universities is also recommended. Based on the findings of the study several recommendations are forwarded. Keywords: Level, Job Satisfaction, Academicians, University, Age, Gender, Experience, Academic Qualification.

Estimation of Total Factor Productivity Growth of Major Grain Crops in Pakistan: 1972-2013

The present study has conducted to estimate the total factor productivity (TFP) growth of major grain crops in Pakistan for the period of 1972-2013 by using Tornqvist-Theil index methodology. Time series data of outputs and inputs was collected from different official published sources for the period of 1972-2013. The output index consist of wheat, rice and maize produces while, input index was constructed by using most of the conventional inputs. The results showed that TFP growth rate of major grain crops on an average was 1.90 percent per year during the study period (1972-2013). This study also estimated TFP growth during different time horizons. The results showed that TFP (4.65 percent) and output (6.69 percent) growth rate was highest during the decade of 90s and lowest during the last decade of the study period (-1.21 percent and 1.01 percent, respectively). The registered TFP growth rate was 2.60 percent and 1.56 percent during the decade of 70s and 80s, respectively. This study observed that weather conditions, different institutional and macro level factor are the major factor that affect the rate of TFP growth during the different study periods. It is recommended that in order to increase TFP growth rate huge public investments required in the area of extension, market, infrastructure and research. Keywords: TFP Growth, Tornqvist-Theil Index, Grain Crops, Output Index, Institutional.

Representation, Vertical Accountability and Mechanisms of Legislative Transparency in Latin America

This paper examines how the process of legislative modernization in the Latin American favored the legislative management, access to information, transparency, and citizen participation in the legislative decisions. However, the technological expectations not guaranteed at all profound changes in political practices, representation and even less in the accountability, situation which places the congresses in a complicated crisis of credibility and trust. The study develops an analysis compared in some countries of Latin American based on three criteria: 1) vertical accountability; 2) citizen access to information and; 3) incidence level of this in legislative decisions. The first element will be observed under the dual role of the legislative power, as agent and subject of accountability, accountability through legislative re-election and the ability to watch and the ability of citizens to evaluate the performance of your representative. Information such as premise systems, are fundamental to the fulfillment of the first while the quality of information reduces the asymmetry between the legislature and the citizens. The third element will address the ability of citizens to influence in open parliaments whose criteria include access to quality information, integration to citizen participation structures. Keywords: Vertical accountability, Social accountability, Reelection, Citizen Participation, Legislative Transparency.
LAURA VALENCIA ESCAMILLA 246-260 Download(239)

Examination of the Economic Literacy of the Students of the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences

The purpose of this research is to examine the economic literacy levels of the students studying at the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences. The data for this study was collected by the questionnaire developed by Gerek and Kurt (2011) and the study was carried out with the participation of 500 students studying at Ömer Halisdemir University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences were applied in the educational year 2016-2017. The data obtained from the questionnaires were evaluated by SPSS22.0 statistical program. The mean and standard deviation statistics were used in determining the demographics of the students and the frequency and percentage statistics were used to determine the participants’ economic literacy levels. To understand if the participants’ level of economic literacy differs according to their demographics t-test, Anova test and post-hoc Schaffer test were used. As a result of the research, it was found that the participants have a moderate economic literacy level and there is no difference in their economic literacy levels according to their age and learning styles. However, their level of economic literacy differs according to their classes, genders and their majors. Keywords: Economics, Knowledge of Economics, Economics Education, Economy Literacy, Economics and Administrative Sciences.
ASLIHAN NAKIBOGLU 261-271 Download(213)

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